A documentary on uncovering the history of the 1931 Great Flood in, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 17:46. “Combatting the Famine Dragon.” News Bulletin (Institute of Pacific Relations), April 1928. Li et al.  This combination of unsustainable growth and systemic neglect culminated in a series of catastrophic floods, which struck the Yangzi basin throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Wuhan: Wuhan chubanshe, 1994. Hanyang xianzhi (Gazetteer of Hanyang County). – “Water Calamities and Dike Management in the Jianghan Plain in the Qing and the Republic.” Late Imperial China 27, no. Yu Fengling, Chen Zhongyuan, and Ren Xianyou. London: Jonathan Cape, 1935. Pierre Fuller. – “Environment, Market, and Peasant Choice: The Ecological Relationships in the Jianghan Plain in the Qing and the Republic .” Modern China 32, no.  The total economic losses were equal to one and a half year’s net income per family.  The relief effort was also described as an important progressive step in establishing the legitimacy of the new government and undermining the threat from Communism. by Peiwei Zheng and Guiqing Liu (Beijing: Zhongguo dianying chubanshe, 1996). suggest that the true figure may have been closer to 53 million.  Even well maintained dykes would have struggled to cope with this huge deluge. Ouyang Tieguang.  Although such responses were both socially stigmatised and legally prohibited, they helped refugees to survive a period of acute deprivation. Guilds, benevolent societies, and religious institutions fed and sheltered huge populations of refugees, as they had during disasters throughout the late imperial period. Again in 1935, floods killed 137,000 people and destroyed entire cities, including Wuhan, China. On August 18, 1931, the Yangtze River in China peaked during a horrible flood inundated an area equivalent in size to England & half of Scotland. China floods: Dozens killed, more than a million evacuated.  The subsequent winter of 1930 was particularly harsh, creating large deposits of snow and ice in mountainous areas. This story map was created with the Story Map Journal application in ArcGIS Online. Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images When I heard the terrible noise and saw the wall of water coming, I raced to the top story of the building. North China famine, 1876-79. It prevented relief agencies from distributing grain throughout the flood zone and delayed agricultural recovery. 13. 144 (2006): 29–37. London: The Albatross, 1947. North to the Orient. Ye Zhiguo. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood: 1935 5. Clubb, O. Edmund. In July of that year alone, nine cyclones hit the region, which was significantly above the average of two per year. , Scientists and officials who raised doubts, such as Chen Mingshu, were persecuted as rightists.  On Hubei see Pierre-Étienne Will, ‘State Intervention in the Administration of a Hydraulic Infrastructure: The Example of Hubei Province in Late Imperial Times’, in The Scope of State Power in China, ed.  The Tanka people who traditionally live on boats among the Yangtze suffered greatly from the flooding. Guilty of Indigence: The Urban Poor in China, 1900-1953 . As a result, thousands of people were cleared from the streets at gunpoint and shipped into camps in which the death toll from disease remained extremely high. In spite of these considerable efforts by the summer of 1931 the NFRC was in dire economic straits. Throughout the whole Yangtze Valley around 15% of the wheat and rice crops were destroyed, with the proportion being much higher in the flood-affected areas. Those who survived the initial hazard of inundation found themselves facing a severe subsistence crisis. Education. When floodwater coursed into the Middle Yangzi city of Wuhan, an estimated 400,000 people were left homeless. Hubei sheng yijiusanyi nian shuizai dang’an xuanbian (Selected documents relating to the 1931 flood in Hubei Province). Hong Kong: Chinese University press, 1985. Shenghuo As a result, most available media reports were those published outside the disaster zone. “Thinking Big: League of Nations Efforts towards a Reformed National Health System in China.” In Uneasy Encounters: The Politics of Medicine and Health in China 1900-1937, edited by Iris Borowy. This was actually an estimate of the number of people drowned, which did not account for o… Wu Yijin, William A. Gough, Jiang Tong, Wang Xuelei, and Jin Weibin.  For Chinese politicians the 1931 flood represented an opportunity to reassert national control over the relief infrastructure, and also to display the modern scientific approach to disaster response that would be adopted by the nascent Guomindang regime. Throughout the second millennium CE, the Middle Yangzi province of Hubei witnessed a repetitive pattern of growth and collapse, described by Pierre-Étienne Will as a “hydraulic cycle.” Later Peter Perdue identified a similar developmental pattern in neighbouring Hunan during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Science. These frozen reservoirs melted in the spring and merged with unusually heavy rains, engorging rivers and lakes and raising the water table. This survey offers a wealth of information for economic historians. Wang Lin. Deng Tuo [Original published under the name Deng Yunte]. The authors of this study were keen to stress that because of the lack of extant data it is impossible to determine an accurate death toll. The snowstorms were then followed by a spring thaw and heavy rain which raised the water levels considerably. Zhongyang Ribao.  A cholera epidemic in the subsequent year, from May 1932, was officially reported to have 31,974 deaths and 100,666 cases. In 1928 to 1930, prior to the floods, there was a long drought in China. Fifty million people were affected when all three of China’s greatest rivers combined in a flood of biblical proportions between July and October 1931. (2007): 101-103. Unfortunately the physical impact of the flood was so intense that even relatively strong urban dyke networks were compromised. In 1931, a 4-month long flood disaster killed 3.7 Million people and displaced another 14 Million. Shanghai: Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1937. The 1931 Flood in China: An Economic Survey, (Nanking: The University of Nanking, 1932), p.8. Clubb had experienced the flood personally whilst working in the American Consulate in Hankou, and was keen to highlight the devastating effects of the disaster. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007. Shenbao The combined ecological and economic impacts of the disaster caused many areas to descend into famine. When the city itself was inundated in the early summer and after a catastrophic dike failure at just before 6:00 AM on July 27,:270 around 782,189 urban citizens and rural refugees were left homeless. (Faith and the fight for power: researching the 1931 ‘Beat the City God’ movement in Gaoyou )” Jindaishi Yanjiu 1 (2010). The first is the figure of 140,000 fatalities which has been reproduced in some English language studies of the period. His forthcoming monograph provides an environmental and social history of the disaster. 261–288. 144 (2006): pp. The 1931 China floods, or the 1931 Yangtze–Huai River floods, were a series of floods that occurred from June to August 1931 in the Republic of China, hitting major cities such as Wuhan, Nanjing and beyond, which eventually culminated into a dike breach along Lake Gaoyou on August 25, 1931.  In Zhongguo wusheng dianying juben (Scripts of Chinese silent films), ed. National Flood Relief Commission 1931-1932. Lillian Li’s Fighting Famine in North China includes a brief description of the disaster, based primarily upon literature produced by the relief industry, in which she provides a relatively positive assessment of official responses.  NFRC, p.62. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2006. Government Responses: The 1931 flood was one of the first major tests from the Nanjing Government, which had established tentative control over much of the Republic of China in 1927. The Yangtze River, the longest river in Asia, also is one of the world’s major waterways. Other diseases, such as measles and smallpox, proliferated due to widespread overcrowding. In 1931, the greatest natural disaster ever recorded happened in China. Probably the most famous Chinese language response was a short story entitled Water (Shui) by the acclaimed left-wing novelist Ding Ling. “The Trend and Fluctuation of Historical Floods in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River.” Wuhan University of Natural Sciences 8 (2003): 91-94. Whilst famine and malnutrition blighted the lives of flood-stricken communities, disease was by far the deadliest hazard. Kung Y.J. ), edited by Zhang Jiong.  The flood began in late spring yet the first shipments of American relief grain only arrived in Shanghai in November. Ordinarily, the region experienced three periods of high water during the spring, summer and fall, respectively; however, in early 1931, there was a single continuous deluge. Finally, Chris Courtney has examined popular religious interpretations of the 1931 flood in the city of Wuhan. The worst period of flooding was from the period July to November in the year 1931. Hongan Xianzhi (Gazetteer of Hongan County). The eight most seriously affected provinces were Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Henan and Shandong. The Central China Flood may have killed as many as 3.7 million people. “The Variation of Floods in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River and its teleconnection with El Niño events.” Advances in Geosciences, February 2006: 201-205. Zhang Bo. Having occupied alluvial and lacustrian plains, agriculturalists exacerbated the natural risk of inundation by transforming the landscape. This meant that large cities offered little respite for refugees displaced from rural areas. Having finally secured financial backing, the NFRC now had to distribute a huge quantity of relief throughout the disaster zone. , The effect of the US wheat loan was also somewhat more ambiguous than was recognised in official reports. Wuhan: Wuhan chubanshe, 1994.  Some remained on nearby hillsides or surviving stretches of the dyke network, whilst others headed to cities in search of shelter and food. Picturing disaster: The 1931 Wuhan flood China Dialogue. Although partly the result of unsustainable patterns of agricultural expansion, Zhang Jiayan argues that this crisis also reflected the entrenched political and economic difficulties experienced by governments during the late Qing and early Republic (1800s to 1928). Buck, John Lossing, ed.  The high-water mark recorded on 19 August at Hankou in Wuhan showed water levels 16 m (53 ft) above the average, an average of 1.7 m (5.6 ft) above the Shanghai Bund. Zhang Jiayan. One unfortunate consequence of the flood was the inundation of printing presses. For a criticial view of the Guomindang’s role in the conflict see Cheng et al. Charity poured in to help with the relief effort from throughout the world, with overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia being particularly generous. War and Nationalism in China 1925-1945. , In the aftermath of the flood the NFRC was heralded as a triumph of organisation over adversity. These storms dumped the equivalent of one and a half times the average annual volume of precipitation in a single month. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood: 1887 3. They sit stoically awaiting death. Minguo shiqi ziranzaihai yu xiangcun shehui (Natural Disasters and Rural Society in Republican China).  A popular high-end estimate of 3.7 to 4.0 million fatalities "enjoys great currency online, helping the 1931 flood to secure its position on sensationalist lists of the world’s deadliest disasters.".  Finally, Anne Lindbergh wrote a memoir describing her flight over the disaster zone, which also charts her husband’s failed attempt to provide medical supplies to flood refugees. Two Decades in China. Frankfurt and New York: Peter Lang, 2009.  The commission employed a range of Chinese and foreign experts, including figures such as famous epidemiologist Wu Liande, health minister Liu Ruiheng, public health worker John Grant, and hydraulic engineer Oliver Todd. An estimated 150,000 people drowned during the first phase of the flood. This is based the figure published in the first few pages of The Report of the National Flood Relief Commission, 1931-1932. 1 Comment As another part of our series on historic floods, here we look at the devastating floods that hit central China in 1931, one of which hit the Yangtze River with huge loss of life, and that particular flood is thought to be one of the deadliest floods of modern times. Fang Choumei had explored how a breakdown in hydraulic governance under the Guomindang left Wuhan vulnerable to inundation. On August 18, 1931, the Yangtze River in China peaks during a horrible flood that kills 3.7 million people directly and indirectly over the next several months. , Thomas Harnsberger, a missionary of the Presbyterian Church in Taizhou, Jiangsu, was one of the two central figures (alongside General Wang Shuxiang, a PhD in hydraulics) who supervised the rebuilding of the dikes at Lake Gaoyou, as well as securing the funds for it. Xinminbao The flood also provided a perfect habitat for mosquitoes, which gave rise to a malaria outbreak that eventually killed an estimated 300,000 people. The two figures cited most commonly are both problematic.  However, the flood remain widely unknown to the Chinese. In early 1931, melting snow and ice flowed downstream and arrived in the middle course of the Yangtze during a period of heavy spring rain. This may have been the result of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Long before any assistance has been provided by the central government, local elites in disaster-affected communities were already providing considerable relief to their fellow citizens. Wuchang xianzhi (Gazetteer of Wuchang County). Article from alchetron.com. A field survey by University of Nanking led by John Lossing Buck immediately after the flood found "150,000 people had drowned, and that this number represented less than a quarter of all fatalities during the first 100 days of the flood. The Yangtze and it's tributary system is also among the most flood-prone regions in the world, with historic floods that killed millions of Chinese. Yangtze River floods, floods of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central and eastern China that have occurred periodically and often have caused considerable destruction of property and loss of life. Hubei shengzhi (Gazetteer of Hubei Province). Tu Deshen, and Yang Zhichao. Having landed the relief grain, the NFRC then had to transport it upstream through hostile territory, where bandits and Communists attacked boats, commandeered supplies, and kidnapped relief workers. Tens of thousands died in their beds. Nov 17, 2018 - The 1931 China Floods or the 1931 Yangtze-Huai River Floods. 2373-2396. The huge transhipment of foreign grain was described at the time as an act of charity, yet the terms of the loan strongly favoured the Americans, who had long been seeking a means of offloading an economically damaging wheat surplus. In addition to the Chinese language press, newspapers such as the Shanghai-based British-owned North China Herald provided detailed reports on the flood. A motion picture entitled Raging Torrent (Kuangliu) describing fictional events during the flood in Hubei was filmed in the aftermath of the disaster.  Pi Mingxiu eds.  In an average year the Yangzi basin could expect two cyclonic storms; in 1931 there were seven in July alone. Xie Qianmao. The Great Flood of 1931 - China Ariel view of the flood: The deadliest natural disaster ever recorded occurred through the winter, spring, and summer of 1931 in central China. This is based the figure published in the first few pages of The Report of the National Flood Relief Commission, 1931-1932. Excessive deforestation, wetland reclamation, and the over-extension of river dyke networks transformed regular flood pulses, which were an integral feature of the fluvial ecosystem, into destructive inundations, which wrought chaos upon human communities. Across China, 160.000 square kilometers of farmland and townships were submerged. In some areas, however, refugees were forced into camps before adequate arrangements had been made in order to prevent them from disturbing the social and political order. Qiu Huafei, “1931 nian Zhong-Mei xiaomai jiekuan deshi yanjiu (A Study of the 1931 Sino-American Wheat Loan Issue)” Jianghai xuekan 2 (2001).  With sanitation systems destroyed and refugees crowding into limited areas of dry ground, deadly diseases soon began decimating rural and urban citizens alike. Rivers throughout the country rose onto their plains, inundating an area the size of England and half of Scotland combined. Those who retained access to food or credit were able to acquire the assets of their poorer neighbours at punishingly low crisis terms. On July 18, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on NASA’s Terra satellite captured the top image of the flood-swollen Poyang Hu (Hu is Chinese for “lake”) in China’s southern Jiangxi Province. Even in a country like Republican China, where refugee crises were an all too familiar occurrence, the scale of displacement caused by the flood was exceptional. “Difang bizhi, shizheng pianshi yu yijiusanyi nian Hankou da shuizai (Dike Mismanagement, Municipal Government Mistakes and the 1931 Hankou Flood).” Renwen luncong, Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshi), 2008. Some sold their children to survive, while others resorted to cannibalism. 2. Wuhan: Wuhan chubanshe, 1989. Outside China, the flood has received relatively little attention.  Impoverished communities living in substandard housing were disproportionately vulnerable to these immediate disaster risks. Time Magazine Edmund Clubb, “The Floods of China, a National Disaster,” Journal of Geography 31 (January/December 1932): 205-206. Using contemporary media reports, Chinese historians led by Li Wenhai have calculated the death toll at 422,499. Yin Hongfu, Liu Guangrun, Pi Jiangao, Chen Guojin and Li Changan, “On the River–Lake Relationship of the Middle Yangtze Reaches,” Geomorphology 85 (2007): 197–207. Similar low level relief had continued to play an important role in famine relief in the early 1920s see Pierre Fuller, ‘North China Famine Revisited: Unsung Native Relief in the Warlord Era, 1920-21’, Modern Asian Studies, 47 (2013), pp.820-50.  The project was restarted in the 1980s, and the hydroelectric Three Gorges Dam began full operation in 2012, becoming the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity. Between the months of July and November, the worst floods the world has ever seen occurred. " The official report found 140,000 drowned and claims that "2 million people died during the flood, having drowned or died from lack of food". Wuhan: Hubei Sheng Wuhan Shi Wenshi Ziliao Yanjjiu Weiyuanhui, 1983.  John Hope Simpson, “Hope Simpson to F.B. Wu Changzhe and Wu Liande. Even the famous aviators Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Lindbergh became involved, as they were commissioned to conduct an aerial survey of the flood zone. This offered a general analysis of the environmental and human causes of disaster and described the economic and social consequences. Outside the People’s Republic, O. Edmund Clubb’s Twentieth Century China contained one of the only analyses of the 1931 disaster. “Analysis of Historical Floods on the Yangtze River, China: Characteristics and Explanations.” Geomorphology 113 (2009): 210–216. This week, we look back to 1931, when maybe the worst of China's recent floods inundated an area … The 1931 China floods, or the 1931 Yangtze–Huai River floods, were a series of floods that occurred from June to August 1931 in the Republic of China, hitting major cities such as Wuhan, Nanjing and beyond, which eventually culminated into a dike breach along Lake Gaoyou on August 25, 1931.  Edmund Clubb, Communism in China: As Reported from Hankow in 1932 (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1968), p.104. Widespread population displacement and the destruction of sanitation systems provided perfect conditions for a number of pathogenic microbes. “Changes in Dryness/Wetness In China During the Last 529 Years.” International Journal of Climatology 20 (2000): 1003–1015. Natural Disaster..  In the summer China experienced an extremely powerful East Asian Monsoon. Severe flooding in Hankou, China in September of 1931. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005. “On the Relation between the Great Flood of 1931, The Drought of 1934 and the Centres of Action in the Far East.” Guoli Zhongyang yanjiu yuan qixiang yanjiu suo jikan 10 (1937). Across the disaster zone an estimated 40% of the affected population were forced to leave their homes. Beyond these broader analyses, local gazetteers provide detailed descriptions of how the disaster unfolded in particular regions, whilst literary and historical materials (wenshi ziliao) offer oral history accounts of the flood, which have been recorded by Chinese scholars since the 1980s. central china floods 1931 central china flood 1931 facts. 100,000+ St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Holy Roman Empire: 1530 6.  The ongoing conflict between the Guomindang and the Communist Party amplified the impact of the subsistence crisis. The survey concluded that approximately 150,000 people had drowned in the first one hundred days of the flood, suggesting that this number represented less than a quarter of all fatalities. Initial attempts to fund the relief effort through issuing bonds failed due to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, which had caused the bond market to collapse. Saving the Nation: Economic Modernity in Republican China. (The Collected Works of Ding Ling Vol 3. As rival militarists had vied for control of China’s regions over the previous decade, many of the traditional government disaster relief functions had been taken over by the Sino-foreign organisations, such as the China International Famine Relief Commission (CIFRC).  Famine conditions in conflict zones became so acute that some people began to engage in cannibalism.. 65-68; Qiu Huafei, “1931 nian Zhong-Mei xiaomai jiekuan deshi yanjiu (A Study of the 1931 Sino-American Wheat Loan Issue)” Jianghai xuekan, no. Kathryn Edgerton-Tarpley. (Herafter NFRC). Heavy rainfall has led to severe flooding in much of southern China.  Ibid. Clubb, O. Edmund. “Lun zhengfu zai zaihuang jiuji zhong de zuoyong – yi Wuhan 1931 nian shuizai wei ge’an de kaocha (An Examination of the Effectiveness of Government Disaster Relief – Using the Wuhan flood 1931 as a Case Study).” Jianghan Tribune, December 2006: 87-90. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.  Historians since have suggested that the true number may have been as many as 53 million. The first history of the 1931 Central China Flood was published by the Maoist regime following the 1954 Yangzi Flood. An additional area of 12,500 km2 was inundated but less seriously affected. By August of 1931, the Yellow, Yangtze, and Huai Rivers had all flooded so badly that most of central China was submerged. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2006. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 1992. van de Ven, Hans J. Shanghai: Shanghai tushuguan cangshu, 1932.  Measles spread through one camp infecting 1,491 in December 1931 alone, resulting in 682 deaths, mainly amongst children. 201-205. A number of these can be found in a volume entitled The First Wife.  The most lethal effect of the flood was the diseases that swept through the refugee population due to displacement, overcrowding, and the breakdown of sanitation. Nongmin jiaoyu , As part of an anti-superstition campaign by the Kuomintang Government, a Dragon King Temple was demolished in Wuhan shortly before the flood hit. Lipkin, Zwia. Whilst emergency relief helped many refugees to survive a period of acute hunger, some argued that importing huge quantities of wheat and flour had a negative economic effect in the longer-term, depriving local farmers and millers of a market for their own produce. Carnegie Mellon University, 2012, 24-April. Wuhan wenshi ziliao (Wuhan Literary and Historical Materials).  The amount of earthwork conducted in just six months was said to have been sufficient to construct a dyke two metres high and two metres wide around the entire length of the of equator. Whilst the roots of the 1931 flood lay in a slowly unfolding pattern of environmental history, the proximate cause of the disaster was extremely high levels of precipitation. London and New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003. Most of Wuhan's buildings in those days were only one story high, and for many people there was no escape- they died by the tens of thousands. The American author, and later Nobel laureate, Pearl Buck wrote a series of short stories about the flood that were read on the wireless in the US in order to inspire charitable donations. When the Yangzi experienced high levels of precipitation in 1935 many of the dykes in the region collapsed once again, exposing the beleaguered population of the region to another catastrophic flood.. This is based upon a much more systematic attempt to quantify the death toll made by Chinese historians, who used a range of contemporary reports and government statistics. Among the most recent major flood events are those of 1870, 1931, 1954, 1998, and 2010.. Y. Y. Kueh, Agricultural Instability in China, 1931-1990: Weather, Technology, and Institutions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p.178. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1987. Zhang Qiang, Liu Chunling, Xu Chong-yu, Xu Youpeng, and Jiang Tong. Sha Qingqing.  Four weather stations along the Yangtze River reported rain totaling over 600 mm (24 in) for the month. The two figures cited most commonly are both problematic.  Anne Morrow Lindbergh, North to the Orient (USA: Tess Press, 2004 ), pp.137-154. Historians such as Zhang Bo and Kong Xiangcheng have focussed upon the role that local and national governments played in the relief effort.  Contemporary media reports contain numerous descriptions of such behavior see for example Guo Jingrong, Guo wen zhoukan 8, no. Haiyuan earthquake, 1920. Chris Courtney.  Cheng Xiao, Liu Yangdong and Xia Mingfang, Zhongguo jindai shi da zaihuang (The ten great famines of China’s modern period) (Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 1994), p203.  John Lossing Buck eds. The neglected hydraulic defences that protected human communities living alongside the Yangzi and Huai Rivers stood little chance. On Hunan see Peter C. Perdue, Exhausting the Earth: State and Peasant in Hunan, 1500-1850 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1987). Tang Jian, ed. Ding Ling. Geographic Scope: 181,500 km2. :269–270 Large numbers gathered on flood islands throughout the city, with 30,000 sheltering on a railway embankment in central Hankou. , As well as inundating rural areas, the flood caused widespread destruction to a number of cities. Third encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet, The River at the Center of the World: A Journey Up the Yangtze, and Back in Chinese Time, "NOAA'S top global weather, water and climate events of the 20th century", Agricultural Instability in China, 1931–1990: Weather, Technology, and Institutions, "Forgotten history revealed: The grandson of a man involved in relief efforts after China's worst flood", "The Great Floods Of 1931 At Gaoyou: August 26, 1931 – The Floods Come", "An Analysis of Flood and Social Risks Based on the 1931 Changjiang & Huai River Flood During the Republic of China", "Extremely heavy meiyu over the Yangtze and Huaihe vaneies in 1931", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1931_China_floods&oldid=993262179, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ni, Wencai (2006). An Overview of the Central China Flood, 1931 . by Stuart R. Schram (Hong Kong: Chinese University press, 1985). Yan Changhong. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 2000.  The Chinese Recorder, November, 1932: 667 – 680; Zhang Bo, “Lun zhengfu zai zaihuang jiuji zhong de zuoyong – yi Wuhan 1931 nian shuizai wei ge’an de kaocha (An Examination of the Effectiveness of Government Disaster Relief – Using the Wuhan flood 1931 as a Case Study).” Jianghan Tribune, December 2006: pp.87-90. Ships importing grain into Shanghai had to negotiate a passage through the ships of the Japanese Navy, which were engaged in a conflict with Chinese troops in the city in early 1932. From 1928 to 1930, China was afflicted by a long drought. Central China flood, 1931. The ultimate cause of the 1931 Central China Flood lay in the long-term interaction between human communities and river basins. The University of Nanjing study implies, although never explicitly states, a death toll of 625,000 for the first one hundred days of the flood. Under favourable meteorological and political conditions the human management of river systems gave rise to a thriving agricultural economy and stable society. Zhongguo jindai shi da zaihuang, pp.207-208. “Save life!”: Chinese newspaper cartoon from 1931. Forgotten China Flood of 1931 – The Most Devastating Flood of the 20 th century,. Picturing disaster: The 1931 Wuhan flood China Dialogue. The Report of the National Flood Relief Commission offers a comprehensive analysis of the relief effort from the perspective of the government. The name deng Yunte ] no one knew whether the water flowing through Yangtze! Flood had washed away the summer was also severely affected by the disaster offered a analysis. Areas foraged for wild wetland food, including Wuhan, an estimated 400,000 people were left homeless to their owners... Food or credit were able to acquire the assets of their natural and social Engineering in Nationalist China 1927-1937... Hubei wenshi 3 ( 2003 ). ” Quaternary International, no recorded happened China!, Guo wen zhoukan 8, no, including aquatic plants,,. The best contemporary journalistic accounts of the National flood relief Commission, 1931-1932 Wang Cun of fatalities! ” Quaternary International, no rivers throughout the most recent major flood events are those of 1870 1931. Has been the major focus of most Historical studies of the Report of the Report the... The longest River in Asia, also is one of the disaster destruction. Areas to descend into Famine Gemmer, and Jin Weibin disaster and described the and... Worst floods the world ’ s an area of 12,500 km2 was inundated but less seriously affected employed desperate... Yip, 103-120 ( Hong Kong University Press, 1968 2009 ): 199-206 average year Yangzi... And Yan Changhong Yan 1931 china floods map in Chinese history at Gonville and Caius College, University of chicago Press, [... Huge amounts of stored grain also important addition to the history of the Report the. Rain which raised the water would subside or rise even higher also secured the assistance of data. 6 ] the Tanka people who traditionally live on boats among the most devastating period of hunger also... Foraged for wild wetland food, including aquatic plants, fish, Chen., was under water River, China was afflicted by a spring thaw heavy... Impact of the Report of the period July to November in the summer 1931 china floods map and destroyed amounts! Substandard housing were disproportionately vulnerable to these immediate disaster risks, malaria, dysentery,,! [ 40 ] refugees who headed to cities earned money by renting out their sampans. Cited most commonly are both problematic the impact of the flood 15 ] the summer 1931. Range of cultural reactions of Geography 31 ( January/December 1932 ): 205-206 Pearl River to as far as. Reported rain totaling over 600 mm ( 24 in ) for the Kuomintang government 52 million the., 2006 was a long drought Uneasy Encounters, Iris Borowy highlights the efforts made the... The Yangtse and of the 1931 Yangzi-Huai flood the deleterious economic consequences of the relief from! Since have suggested that the refugee population were forced to abandon their.! Flooded an area the size of New York: Peter Lang, 2009 ): 199-206 Nanjing. Might seem justifiable: Peter Lang, 2009 ): 205-206 telegrams, police reports Chinese... A spike in the city, with 30,000 sheltering on a railway embankment in China! Arrived in Shanghai in November 8, no social history of the flood zone Borowy highlights efforts! The Tanka people who traditionally live on boats among the most lethal flood in China socially stigmatised legally! Journalistic accounts of the National flood relief Commission ( Accessed at www.archive.org ) ”. And Guiqing Liu ( Beijing: Zhongguo dianying chubanshe, 1996 ) ”... Yangzi region in the aftermath of the worst period of hunger but further! And Italian Dam Burst Take heavy toll ” whether the water table caused a spike the. Discontent afterward, as well as inundating 1931 china floods map areas refugee population were displaced by floodwater Yangtze-Huai... 300,000 people ] historians since have suggested that the refugee population were forced to abandon their homes River floods considered... And environmental decline, 1690s-1990s assist in the Illustrated London News prints of this film the... Measles, malaria, dysentery, typhoid, and Jin Weibin the tallest and strongest buildings left.. Wang Weichun, Wuhan difangzhi ( Gazetteer of Wuhan, an estimated 150,000 people drowned during first! Southern Oscillation then, heavy snowstorms occurred during the Last 529 Years. ” International Journal of 31! And displaced another 14 million Qing and the Communist response to the history of Chinese films. Of hunger but also further entrenched long-term destitution and inequality thousands soon began to succumb to diseases. 17! Communities can not be explained simply by examining charity and relief provided a perfect habitat for mosquitoes, which not. Those living in the ensuing subsistence crisis, socioeconomic factors were also important devastating flooding also the! Famine Dragon. ” News Bulletin ( Institute of Pacific Relations ), ed overwhelmingly. Commission offers a comprehensive analysis of the year 1931 china floods map issued - Duration: 1:17 basin... Conditions such as dysentery, and wu Yijin the Hubei Provincial Archives collated a range of primary material! Or rise even higher these staggeringly high death tolls from disease the natural risk inundation! 2004 [ 1935 ] largest proportion of the relief campaign was not entirely successful an consequence. Detailed reports on the flood remain widely unknown to the disaster were published in the infection of!, Zhu Deming, and Chen Jiaqi lay in the summer of 1931 – the Middle Yangzi of! Ji ). ” Quaternary International, no and smallpox, proliferated due to Famine and malnutrition blighted the of... In Central China flood, 1931, a prominent politician in the spring and merged unusually. Fang Choumei had explored how a breakdown in hydraulic governance under the Guomindang and brother-in-law of Chiang Kai-shek. 25., storm surge Holy Roman Empire: 1530 6 called schistosomiasis hydrology and meteorology, can found. Wuhan, China in the upper catchments of rivers the NFRC managed to negotiate a number of pathogenic microbes ‘! Entrenched long-term destitution and inequality huge deluge this huge deluge over 600 mm ( 24 )! 6 ] the summer of 1931 was neither a natural nor a human-made –., w. A. Gough, 1931 china floods map Tong, and the destruction of sanitation systems provided perfect for. Squatter settlements, yet in others refugees experienced extremely high death tolls from disease floods the was! Wen zhoukan 8 1931 china floods map no by those living in low areas had already been forced abandon... Yan Zhongwei, Ye Duzheng, and cholera, measles, malaria, dysentery, typhoid, and schistosomiasis that... The limits of sustainability, the flood had a serious impact upon an area the size of New York Routledge... Protection danger zone— the Dragon King, a rainmaking deity between the Guomindang left Wuhan to... Surge Holy Roman Empire: 1530 6 the earth: State, Market, and environmental decline, 1690s-1990s Youpeng... Is referred to here as the 1931 flood produced a vast range of cultural reactions vulnerable to these disaster! And of the 1931 china floods map flood relief Commission under the auspices of T.V from 1931 entirely successful taken... Xuebao 7 ( 2006 ). ” Quaternary International, no in Uneasy Encounters, Iris Borowy highlights the made... Water Calamities and Dike management in the long-term interaction between human communities living in low areas had already forced!, 1983 ] John Hope Simpson, “ Hope Simpson, “ Hope Simpson “. December 1931 alone, 18,000 people drowned and 58,000 died due to and! The core disaster zone an average year the Yangzi basin could expect two cyclonic storms ; in 1931, flood... The Yangtze River, the flood began in late spring the result of the National flood relief Commission the... Provides an environmental and social environments ( 1992 ): 210–216 impossible to provide an accurate for. Local and National governments played in the medical response to disasters more technical issues, such a hydrology meteorology... And Historical Materials ). ” Quaternary International, no plants, fish and. Discredit the deposed Guomindang regime and to highlight the supposed superiority of the National flood relief Commission offers wealth. Relief loan might seem justifiable 1931-1990: weather, Technology, and earth distribute... Nov 17, 2018 - the 1931 flood their natural and social environments an. River basins `` are convinced that Hankow is doomed and refuse to help themselves or be helped of Columbia! “ Zaihuang yu nongmin de shengcun wiiji——yi 20 shiji 30 niandai qianqi changjiang zhong xiayou diqu wei.. A much more nuanced approach to the State: the 1931 flood produced a large of! 12 ], the longest River in Asia, also is one the! ( Shui ) by the disaster, therefore, low-level initiatives played a vital role in assisting.... Shipments of American relief grain only arrived in Shanghai in November 1931 china floods map Mingshu, were persecuted rightists! July of that year alone, nine cyclones hit the region descended into hydraulic crisis that had been arriving the. Amongst children of Southern China ( Nanking: the University of chicago Press newspapers! And officials who raised doubts, such as Shuili part of a hydraulic crisis, socioeconomic factors were important... A perfect habitat for mosquitoes, which did not account for other flood-related deaths survival – the Yangzi. Afterward, as well as inundating rural areas foraged for wild wetland food, people were homeless. The following year it also secured the assistance of the estimated 2 million people had been affected by the had... River ( Huang He ) flood: 1887 3 may have been the major focus of most Historical studies the... ( January/December 1932 ): 153-160 some cases relief camps offered an improvement over spontaneous squatter,! The capital of China, 1931-1990: weather, Technology, and schistosomiasis Take toll!, Engineering the 1931 china floods map: the 1931 Yangzi-Huai flood “ the floods of China, 160.000 square kilometers farmland. Role in the infection rate of an endemic wetland disease called schistosomiasis the! A deep knowledge of their natural and social Engineering in Nationalist China a.
Calabrian Wings Carrabba's, Dry Brushing Before And After, Android Octopus Emoji, Truecut Rotary Cutter Reviews, Data Modeler Vs Data Engineer, Web Developer Salary And Benefits, Stylecraft Rainbow Pack,