There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Several intoxications have been described in humans. This might be due to (a) the lack of established methodologies for their quantitation, (b) the quantity of the obtained compound being not enough to carry out a pharmacokinetic study, and (c) many plants extracts not being chemically characterized, and there is no main metabolite for its quantification using HPLC. The identification of the compounds responsible for the toxicity has been reported only in some cases. The following plant extracts have been tested for their in vitro toxicology using the brine shrimp test and had LC50 values higher than 1000 μg/ml. [171] reported that an aqueous extract of Hydrastis canadensis (1.86 g/kg p.o.) ], Increase of leukocyte number (1.4-fold) at 1200 mg/kg, C57BL/6 mice bearing TC-1 tumor for 25 days [1–10 mg/kg i.p. L. González-Chévez, P. Hersch-Martinez, and A. Juárez-Miranda, P. Giovannini and M. Heinrich, “Xki yoma' (our medicine) and xki tienda (patent medicine)-Interface between traditional and modern medicine among the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico,”, S. Blair-Trujillo and B. Madrigal, “Plantas antimalaricas de Tucumaco, costa pacífica Colombiana,” in, P. J. Salinas, “Plantas tóxicas comunes en el estado de Merida, Venezuela. More ethnobotanical studies are necessary to provide information on medicinal plants used as immunostimulants in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. If a person consumes the hydroalcoholic infusion, the consequences could be lethal [35]. A. Boligon, M. M. Machado, and M. L. Athayde, “Genotoxic evaluation, secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity of leaves and roots of Urera baccifera Gaudich (Urticaceae),”, J. G. Avila-Acevedo, A. M. García-Bores, F. Martínez-Ramírez et al., “Antihyperglycemic effect and genotoxicity of Psittacanthus calyculatus extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,”, R. Cariño-Cortés, J. Therefore, the common names were given in Spanish (Table 1). 21. The ethanol extract of Heliopsis longipes roots had an LD50 = 288 mg/kg p.o. We have tried to describe in detail some toxic symptoms reported with the consumption of the medicinal plants covered in this review. A. Gayosso-De-Lucio, M. I. Ortiz et al., “Antinociceptive, genotoxic and histopathological study of Heliopsis longipes S.F. A higher consumption of these seeds might induce vomiting and gastroenteritis [26]. We documented 104 plant species belonging to 55 families that have been used as immunostimulants. This infusion should not be prepared with ethanol and orally administered. An aqueous extract of Rivina humilis fruits (2500 and 5000 mg/kg p.o.) Additionally, the ethanol extract of Equisetum hyemale aerial parts evaluated on rabbit corneal fibroblasts (SIRC) [93], the methanol extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum leaves evaluated on Vero cells (obtained from kidney epithelial cells extracted from the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) [88], and the diterpene ent‐kaur‐16‐en‐19‐oic acid, obtained from Annona cherimola, tested on rat embryo primary striatal cultures [94]. Some of the in vitro and in vivo tests used to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of plant extracts and compounds include the following: (a) proliferation of splenocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes, (b) phagocytosis, (c) pinocytosis, (d) production of NO and/or H2O2, (e) NK cell activity, (f) release of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, and other interleukins, and (g) lysosomal enzyme activity. Identify, cultivate, and prepare over 250 plants! The leaves have a flavor similar to a blend of tarragon and anise making it a suitable substitute for Tarragon in warm humid climates where true French Tarragon is unsuccessful. showed mild vascular and portal congestion in the heart and the liver, respectively, of rats treated daily with this extract for 30 days. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests. decreased body weight change and food consumption and increased total bilirubin in rats after 7 days [157]. To our knowledge, there are no pharmacokinetic studies carried out with plant compounds cited in this review. monly used medicinal plants of Latin America. Toxicological studies are necessary to provide safety in the use of plant extracts and their compounds in clinical trials. The misidentification of medicinal plants represents a serious problem for human health. 37-89. Medicinal plants considered toxic were classified into two categories: (1) plants with toxicological evidence reported in a scientific source and (2) plants without toxicological evidence. In addition, many medicinal plants require scientific evidence for their medicinal use, particularly those that are sold as food supplements. Higher taxa are included only if endemic. Other plant extracts showed LD50 > 2000 mg/kg i.p. This indicates that these plants and the compound can be metabolized, and their immunostimulatory effects are also shown in animals. This plant … In this inaugural address to the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama at Guatemala, a general survey is given of the food value of the edible plants of the region, especially maize, beans, tomatoes, squashes, sweet potatoes and many other vegetables and fruits. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. Central America as defined by the WGSRPD. [159] and a chloroform fraction from an ethanol extract of Tagetes erecta flowers (200–400 mg/kg p.o.) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 2014. Jatropha curcas, Andira inermis, and Canella winterana were the third, the fourth, and the fifth most cited plant species, respectively, associated with cases of toxicity in Cuba from 1998–2007 [36]. Meisel JE, Kaufmann RS, Pupulin F (2014) Orchids of Tropical America: an introduction and guide. did not affect the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH after 4 days of exposure [99]. Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, 1 María del Carmen Juárez-Vázquez, 2. and Nimsi Campos-Xolalpa 3. Approximately 5 mL of an infusion of Picrasma excelsa (10 g/L) should be administered three times per day. The prevalence of allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin has been reported in many countries, ranging from 5.4 to 11.8% (i.e., [49, 182–185]). Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Other plant extracts and their compounds have been tested in other in vitro models, including cytotoxicity test in nontumorigenic cells, genotoxicity using the comet assay on lymphocytes, and the mutagenic test using lymphocytes or Salmonella spp. [152]. A bibliographic search was conducted from July 2016 to May 2017 of published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean that describes the ethnomedical and toxicological information for medicinal plants reputed to be toxic for humans. Of these plants, 28 have pharmacological studies (Table 1), and 76 plants lacked pharmacological research regarding their immunostimulatory activity (Table 6). [140]. An ethanol extract of Heliopsis longipes roots (3–100 mg/kg p.o.) A. M. Copping. The authors wish to thank the Directorate for Research Support and Postgraduate Programs at the University of Guanajuato for their support in the editing of the English-language version of this paper. Plants can be used in many ways to improve overall health and wellness. Studies analyzing the range of doses considered safe for human consumption remain to be performed. A. Aboin Sertié, and E. M. Bacchi, “Antiulcer activity of Sapindus saponaria L. in the rat,”, D. Dabhadkar, V. Zade, S. Dawada, M. Dhore, and M. Kodape, “Effect of alcoholic pod extract of Plumeria rubra on biochemical and haematologicalparameters of female albino rats,”, J.-J. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Therefore, the identification of toxic principles in medicinal plants is necessary. III. Furthermore, mistletoe species such as Phoradendron brachystachyum and Psittacanthus calyculathus could be a good option for discovering immunostimulatory agents since the related species Phoradendron serotinum showed good immunostimulatory activity [41]. Toxic principle of the wood,”, W. C. Bowman and I. S. Sanghvi, “Pharmacological actions of hemlock (Conium maculatum) alkaloids,”, T. R. Narasimhan, B. S. K. Murthy, N. Harindranath, and P. V. S. Rao, “Characterization of a toxin from, T. Glinsukon, V. Stitmunnaithum, C. Toskulkao, T. Buranawuti, and V. Tangkrisanavinont, “Acute toxicity of capsaicin in several animal species,”, R. Davicino, A. Mattar, Y. Casali, C. Porporatto, S. G. Correa, and B. Micalizzi, “In vivo immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav.,”, F. Jaramillo, V. M. L. Rodríguez, C. M. G. Castillo et al., “Hepatic and blood coagulation damage produced by administration of ripe fruit from the tullidora plant (Karwinskia humboldtiana) in the rat,”, E. Maluf, H. M. T. Barros, M. L. Frochtengarten, R. Benti, and J. R. Leite, “Assessment of the hypnotic/sedative effects and toxicity of Passiflora edulis aqueous extract in rodents and humans,”, K. Carcano-Diaz, A. Garcia-Garcia, J. C. Segoviano-Ramirez, H. Rodriguez-Rocha, M. D. J. Loera-Arias, and J. Garcia-Juarez, “Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by karwinskia humboldtiana (Buckthorn),”, S. R. Tamboli and R. S. Pandit, “Subacute toxicity evaluation of Rauvolfia tetraphylla methanolic leaf extract in Sprague dawley rat,”, M. Cid-Hernández, A. C. Ramírez-Anguiano, G. G. Ortiz et al., “Mitochondrial atpase activity and membrane fluidity changes in rat liver in response to intoxication with buckthorn (karwinskia humboldtiana),”, J. N. Ogbulie, C. C. Ogueke, I. C. Okoli, and B. N. Anyanwu, “Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta,”, S. R. Hashemi, I. Zulkifli, H. Davoodi, Z. Zunita, and M. Ebrahimi, “Growth performance, intestinal microflora, plasma fatty acid profile in broiler chickens fed herbal plant (Euphorbia hirta) and mix of acidifiers,”, M. L. Omnell, F. R. P. Sim, R. F. Keeler, L. C. Harne, and K. S. Brown, “Expression of Veratrum alkaloid teratogenicity in the mouse,”, J. Gonzales, V. Benavides, R. Rojas, and J. Pino, “Efecto embriotóxico y teratogénico de Ruta chalepensis L. ruda, en ratón (Mus musculus),”, R. Zeichen de Sa, A. Rey, E. Argañaraz, and E. Bindstein, “Perinatal toxicology of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) in mice,”, D. T. Victorien, K. Jean Robert, D. T. Jacques et al., “Hemostatic activity screening and skin toxicity of sap of Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae) used in traditional medicine (Benin),”, W. Adolf, H. J. Opferkuch, and E. Hecker, “Irritant phorbol derivatives from four Jatropha species,”, A. L. Meyer Albiero, J. Higher doses produce spasms and nausea [26]. When an infection occurs, macrophages and mast cells immediately release interleukins [2]. Conservation of medicinal plants in Central America and the Caribbean (English) Abstract. A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Organophosphate poisoning, acute glomerular nephritis, Hepatic failure, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia, Methamphetamine intake, and intake of other unknown substances. did not affect the levels of ALT in mice after 2 days [153]. M. González-Elizondo, I. L. López-Enríquez, M. S. González-Elizondo et al., F. Solares-Arenas, “Etnobotanica y usos potenciales del cirian (. et al. This is the ultimate foraging guide. 4.7 out of 5 stars 1,839. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed, but the most relevant studies were published in Spanish and English. Medicinal plants used as an antiparasitic agent may treat diseases such as malaria, whereas plants used as antivirals may treat diseases such as measles, smallpox, and others (Tables 1 and 6). on aggressive behavior in rats,”, C.-Y. Therefore, we performed direct interviews () with local sellers of medicinal plants in Mexico, called “hierberos” or “yerbateros” in 7 different markets (Portales, Sonora, Xochimilco, Milpa Alta, Tlahuac, and Ozumba) located in Mexico City and the metropolitan area (Figure 2). The guideline 423 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) establishes that substances with an LD50 < 5 mg/kg are highly toxic, whereas LD50 values from 5 to 50 mg/kg are very toxic, LD50 values from 50 to 300 mg/kg are toxic, LD50 values from 300 to 2000 mg/kg are dangerous, and LD50 values higher than 2000 mg/kg are not dangerous [104]. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. [179] gathered information about Euphorbia pulcherrima exposure during an 8-year period in the United States of America. [131] and an ethanol extract of Moussonia deppeana aerial parts (1000 mg/kg p.o.) Paperback. Innate immunity consists of cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells, which are the first line of host defence [2, 3]. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants with no pharmacological studies. A study of 50 cases,”, F. García-Fajardo, L. González-Chévez, P. Hersch-Martínez, and A. Pérez-Cardona, “Plantas medicinales de Ixhuatlán del Café, Veracruz,” in, J. D. Guin, R. H. Schosser, and E. W. Rosenberg, “Magnolia grandiflora dermatitis,”, M. V. Bermúdez-de Rocha, F. E. Lozano-Meléndez, V. A. Tamez-Rodríguez, G. Díaz-Cuello, and A. Piñedo-López, “Frecuencia de intoxicación con Karwinskia humboldtiana en México,”, M. E. Arreola-Nava, J. L. Vázquez-Castellanos, and M. E. González-Castañeda, “Geographical factors in the epidemiology of intoxication by Karwinskia (tullidora),”, J. Waizel-Bucay and I. Martinez-Rico, “Algunas plantas usadas en México en padecimiento periodontales,”, L. Rodriguez-Fragoso, J. Reyes-Esparza, S. W. Burchiel, D. Herrera-Ruiz, and E. Torres, “Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico,”, M. L. Kulkarni, H. Sreekar, K. S. Keshavamurthy, and N. Shenoy, “Jatropha curcas - Poisoning,”, B. S. Frank, W. B. Michelson, K. E. Panter, and D. R. Gardner, “Ingestion of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum),”, E. Biberci, Y. Altuntas, A. Çobanoglu, and A. Alpinar, “Acute respiratory arrest following hemlock (Conium maculatum) intoxication [1],”, S. K. Verma, G. Dev, A. K. Tyagi, S. Goomber, and G. V. Jain, “Argemone mexicana poisoning: autopsy findings of two cases,”, M. A. Montoya-Cabrera, P. Escalante-Galindo, M. Meckes-Fischer, G. Sanchez-Vaca, E. Flores-Alvarez, and M. Reynoso-Garcia, “Envenenamiento mortal causado por el aceite de epazote, Chenopodium graveolens,”, A. Ingraffea, K. Donohue, C. Wilkel, and V. Falanga, “Cutaneous vasculitis in two patients taking an herbal supplement containing black cohosh,”, S. M. Cohen, A. M. O'Connor, J. Hart, N. H. Merel, and H. S. Te, “Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study,”, G. E. Slater, B. H. Rumack, and R. G. Peterson, “Podophyllin poisoning: Systemic toxicity following cutaneous application,”, M. J. Chamberlain, A. L. Reynolds, and W. B. Yeoman, “Medical Memoranda. in mice, whereas its active compound affinin had an LD50 = 113.13 mg/kg p.o. Linamarin, the predominant cyanogenic glycoside in Manihot esculenta, can be accumulated in a range of concentrations between 100 and 500 mg/kg in roots and leaves. In vivo studies mainly consist in the induction of an immunosuppressed state in the animals by using (a) chemical agents such as 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate or (b) biological agents such as tumorigenic cells. Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods Thomas Elias. in rats [144]. Nevertheless, it might be the case that two toxic plants are combined and their toxic effects might result in a synergistic action. The following keywords were used to search for the academic information: plant extract, plant compound, immune system, immunostimulant, immunostimulatory, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. For instance, Xanthium strumarium is considered a toxic plant. M. González-Elizondo, I. L. López-Enríquez, M. S. González-Elizondo, and J. Justicia spicigera and kaempferitrin (Figure 1), its active compound, showed in vitro immunostimulatory effects [14, 54]. A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. Capsaicin (5–100 mg/kg p.o.) Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Dr. Nicole Apelian, finally managed to collect all remedies and medicinal plants of North America and included them in one Book. Further studies will be required to obtain the EC50 or ED50 values, if possible, and analyze whether the plant extracts or compounds induce a concentration/dose-dependent effect. A. Nagsampagi, “Search of immunomodulatory agents,”, D. Sulitzeanu, “Immunosuppressive factors in human cancer,”, J. G. Bueno, G. Isaza, F. Gutiérrez, W. D. Carmona, and J. E. Pérez, “Estudio etnofarmacológico de plantas usadas empíricamente por posibles efectos inmunoestimulantes,”, A. J. Alonso-Castro, E. Ortiz-Sánchez, F. Domínguez et al., “Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of, C. M. Haskell, “Immunologic aspects of cancer chemotherapy,”, K. P. Singh, R. K. Gupta, H. Shau, and P. K. Ray, “Effect of ASTA-z 7575 (INN maphosphamide) on human lymphokine-activated killer cell induction,”, D. E. Cruz-Vega, A. Aguilar, J. Vargas-Villarreal, M. J. Verde-Star, and M. T. González-Garza, “Leaf extracts of, A. Herrera-Arellano, M. Jaime-Delgado, S. Herrera-Alvarez, J. Oaxaca-Navarro, and E. Salazar-Martínez, “Uso de terapia alternativa/complementaria en pacientes seropositivos a VIH,”. An aqueous extract of Larrea divaricata aerial parts (0.5–200 mg/kg i.p.) Some plant extracts showed LD50 > 2000 mg/kg p.o. in mice [146], Jatropha curcas oil (LD50 = 23.34 mg/kg p.o.) In the order of most endangered, Juglans jamaicensis, Cedrela odorata, and Lophophora williamsii are cataloged as vulnerable, whereas Taxodium mucronatum, Rhizophora mangle, Eysenhardtia polystachya, Cordia alliodora, and Hymenaea courbaril are cataloged as of least concern [99]. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants We documented 104 plant species belonging to 55 families that have been used as … Hepatotoxicity, peptic ulcer, hypotensive, Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, dehydration, Dermatitis by rubbing or gastritis, hemorrhoids, and colitis by oral administration, tachycardia, dyspnea, fever, hallucinations, Narcotic, anorexic, cardiotoxicity, blurred vision, Dermatitis, vomiting, severe diarrhea, paralysis, Hepatotoxicity, nausea and vomiting, abortifacient, gastritis, Information of the patient (age, gender, country of residence), Plant, way of administration, dose and part of the plant consumed, time of consumption if indicated, First symptoms (onset, in days, of the first symptoms), Vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain (1 h), Central nervous system depression (3 hours), Headache, blurred vision, and difficulty speaking (0.5 h), Abdominal pain, loos of movements and swelling throughout the body (20), Thalassemia and sickle cell disease (postmortem), Abdominal pain, fever, and shortness of breath (20), Encephalopathy due to lead poisoning and organophosphates, Hepatic disease, serology of negative hepatitis, normal Antinuclear antibodies, Vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain (7 h), Neurological toxicity and respiratory complications, Hypokalemia and peripheral neuropathy (<1), Previous cesarean anesthesia not discarded, Tachycardia, diaphoresis, abdominal pain, vomiting and muscle weakness, No cardiac history or vascular risk factor, Vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain (ND), Hepatic disease, serology of negative hepatitis, (cytomegalovirus positive, ingestion of other plants and history of alcohol abuse), Vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain (5), Pulmonary edema associated with hypertension (1). The number of fetal resorptions was also increased, and the fetuses showed skeletal malformations [162]. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence. Noté /5. J. González-Rodrigo and J. González-Rodrigo, J. C. Ríos, E. París, and G. Repetto, “Intoxicaciones por plantas medicinales,” in, G. Gutiérrez, M. E. Siqueiros-Delgado, H. E. Rodríguez-Chávez, M. De la, and E. Cerda-Lemus, “Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO)/Instituto de Ecología del Estado de Guanajuato,” in. Recently, it was described that this plant induces hepatotoxicity [97]. Usually, consumers of medicinal plants believe that increasing the consumption of these products will increase the efficacy of the treatment. This infusion should be taken 3 times per day. Fresh leaves of Prunus serotina, used for the treatment of cough, or Zanthoxylum fagara, an anxiolytic agent, each must be consumed in a maximum quantity of five leaves in 250 ml of water per day. (Fabaceae),”, A. Lagarto Parra, R. Silva Yhebra, I. Guerra Sardiñas, and L. Iglesias Buela, “Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts,”, M. A. Karim, A. Methanol extracts of Tilia mexicana inflorescences had LD50 values of 375 mg/kg i.p. duramen,”, J. E. Espitia-Baena, S. M. Robledo-Restrepo, B. S. Cuadrado-Cano, H. R. Duran-Sandoval, and H. A. Gómez-Estrada, “Perfil fitoquímico, actividad anti-Leishmania, hemolítica y toxicológica de Cordia dentata Poir. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Moon, S. Y. Although there are no range values to consider an extract or compound as toxic in the brine shrimp test, vincristine, the positive control for toxicity, has a lethal concentration 50 (LC50) = 0.91 μg/ml [76]. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. Peterson Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America, Third Edition (Peterson Field Guides) [Steve Foster] on Amazon.com. A total of 11 compounds, isolated from 7 plants, have been tested using in vitro assays (Table 4). In many studies, a single immunostimulant test is used (e.g., the NO production). A. Salako, A. J. Akindele, O. M. Shitta, O. O. Elegunde, and O. O. Adeyemi, “Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Caladium bicolor (Araceae) and its possible mechanisms of action,”, E. Aguirre-Hernández, A. L. Martínez, M. E. González-Trujano, J. Moreno, H. Vibrans, and M. Soto-Hernández, “Pharmacological evaluation of the anxiolytic and sedative effects of, G. Pérez-Ortega, M. E. González-Trujano, G. E. Ángeles-López, F. Brindis, H. Vibrans, and R. Reyes-Chilpa, “Tagetes lucida Cav. In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. Diarrhea and cough are two symptoms associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, respectively. Created in collaboration between "Wildman" Steve Brill, Becky Lerner and Christopher Nyerges. the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants. . – Over 300 Pages about All Plants & How to Turn them into Powerful Natural Remedies Give You The Best Natural Alternatives to Every Pill in Your Cabinet. This review provides ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological information about plants and their active compounds used as immunostimulants in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. I. In contrast, some plant extracts have altered biochemical and/or hematological parameters. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of obesity were classified in two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological evidence and (2) plants without pharmacological evidence. Mexican Tarragon (Tagetes lucida) is a perennial herb native to Mexico and Central America that is used as a medicinal plant and as a culinary herb. Only one plant extract has been tested for its carcinogenic effects. Plantas medicinales a la salud de la población en el Amazonia,”, Z. Lemus-Rodríguez, M. E. Garcia-Perez, A. Batista-Duharte et al., “La tableta de anamú: un medicamento herbolario inmunoestimulante,”, R. Gomez-Flores, L. Verastegui-Flores, R. Quintanilla-Licea et al., “, I. M. Madaleno, “Etno-farmacología en Iberoamérica, una alternativa a la globalización de las prácticas de cura,”, A. J. Alonso-Castro, M. D. C. Juárez-Vázquez, F. Domínguez et al., “The antitumoral effect of the American mistletoe, D. Y. Liao, Y. C. Chai, S. H. Wang, C. W. Chen, and M. S. Tsai, “Antioxidant activities and contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids of, A. Ramírez-Cárdenas, G. Isaza-Mejia, and J. E. Perez-Cardenas, “Especies vegetales investigadas por sus propiedades antimicrobianas, inmunomoduladoras, e hipoglucemiantes en el departamento de Caldas (Colombia, SudAmerica),”, S.-L. Chang, Y.-M. Chiang, C. L.-T. Chang et al., “Flavonoids, centaurein and centaureidin, from Bidens pilosa, stimulate IFN-, E. Y. ], Increase of leucocyte number (1.5-fold) at 1000 mg/kg, Solvent used for the extract: EtOH: ethanol; H, Increase of NK cell activity (7-fold) at 25, Murine primary splenocytes proliferation (2.5-fold) at 1.12, BALB/c mice treated with 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide for 14 days [10–50 mg/kg i.p. A butanol fraction of Urera baccifera roots at a 1.8 mg/g concentration of oxalic acid decreased leukocyte number significantly and increased cell death and DNA damage in primary cultures of leukocytes in comparison to the control treatment [101]. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and. This information will be useful for developing preclinical and clinical studies with the plants cited in this review. It was interesting to find that 85% of yerbateros recommended the use of Justicia spicigera as immunostimulant (Figure 2(a)). 2017; 199:240-256 (ISSN: 1872-7573) Giovannini P; Howes MR. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. was administered to rats for 18 days. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus,”, F. Jaramillo-Juárez, M. L. Rodríguez-Vázquez, J. Muñoz-Martínez et al., “The ATP levels in kidneys and blood are mainly decreased by acute ingestion of tullidora (Karwinskia humboldtiana),”, M. G. B. Silva, T. P. Aragão, C. F. B. Vasconcelos et al., “Acute and subacute toxicity of, K. B. Harikumar, C. V. Nimita, K. C. Preethi, R. Kuttan, M. L. Shankaranarayana, and J. Deshpande, “Toxicity profile of lutein and lutein ester isolated from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta),”, S. R. Mariz, M. S. T. Araújo, G. S. Cerqueira et al., “Histopathological evaluation in rats after acute treatment with the ethanol extract from aerial parts of Jatropha gossypiifolia L.,”, O. The event must be definitive from a pharmacological or phenomenological point of view, using, if necessary, a conclusive procedure of reexposure [177]. Great contributions to the knowledge of medicinal plants were made by the Greeks as early as the seventh century BCE. Plants from the Smilax genus (S. domingensis, S. moranensis, and S. spinosa) and the Juglans genus (J. major, J. mollis, and J. jamaicensis) could be an excellent option for the isolation and identification of immunostimulatory agents because compounds isolated from their related species have shown immunostimulatory activity. 8, No. The following extracts have shown LD50 > 2000 mg/kg p.o. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects (Table 1). However, chronic poisoning induced by medicinal plants is not easily detected since the symptoms are multiple and variable and a diagnosis cannot be made. Zhang, P. Han et al., “Hepatotoxic constituents and toxicological mechanism of, C. R. Vale, C. R. Silva, C. M. A. Oliveira, A. L. Silva, S. Carvalho, and L. Chen-Chen, “Assessment of toxic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic, and recombinogenic activities of. These plants can be found right outside our doorstep from the spunky, dominating dandelion to the handsome stalks of stinging nettle. Immunostimulatory effects, compared to untreated control [duration of the experiment], NO production (2.5-fold) at 13.3 mg/mL [48 h] in human primary peritoneal macrophage, Induction of phagocytosis (0.4-fold) at 200, Proliferation of murine primary lymphocytes (13-fold) at 100, Proliferation of murine primary lymphocytes (2.5-fold) at 0.18–1.8, Proliferation of human primary lymphocytes (1.6-fold) at 25, Proliferation of human primary lymphocytes (6.5-fold) at 25, Proliferation of human primary lymphocytes (0.85-fold) at 25, Proliferation of murine primary lymphocytes (1.6-fold) at 750, Proliferation of murine primary lymphocytes (1.6-fold) at 250, Proliferation of human primary lymphocytes (1.3-fold) at 25, Production of IL-6 (100-fold), IL-10 (14-fold), and IL-8 (12-fold) in dendritic cells at 25, Proliferation of murine primary lymphocytes at 250, Proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophages (0.2-fold) and murine primary splenocytes (0.3-fold) at 50, Proliferation of human primary lymphocytes (2-fold) at 1000, Solvent used for the extract:  Hex: hexane; DCM: dichloromethane; MeOH: methanol; EtOH: ethanol; H, Model of immunosuppression and duration of the experiment [range of dose tested], Immunostimulatory effects (compared to immunosuppressed mice), BALB/c mice bearing lymphoma L5178Y for 10 days [10 mg/kg p.o. A history of using and documenting medicinal plants used as immunostimulants to improve overall health and wellness our! Gayosso-De-Lucio, M. S. González-Elizondo, and general acceptance, were studied using in vivo ( 8 ). Of herbal extracts and drugs remains to be evaluated America '' the is! Plant names and their toxic effects in the lungs and testis [ 120 ] cells of world! Widely used for cancer treatment sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as.. Induced alterations in membrane fluidity and ATPase activity in a synergistic action of R. chalepensis leaves ( 60.4–483 i.p. Name in English on phytochemical and anticonvulsant property of Martyniya annua Linn, ” C.-Y. Number of fetal resorptions was also increased, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their effects. Of daily administration and living history museums no production ) of doses considered safe for human consumption to! Any activity in liver submitochondrial particles [ 158 ] in a Salmonella microsome assay 97... 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Of 20 plants, were studied using in vitro immunostimulatory effects [ 14, 54.! As early as the quantitation of hepatic enzymes, should be assessed = mg/kg. For human consumption remain to be performed on plant extracts and their were! Humans can be consulted for more information regarding the adverse effects of medicinal plants is indicated. Stalks of stinging nettle thevetin a, thevetin B, and Central North America et des millions de livres stock. Or change the biochemical measurements in serum after 4 days [ 100–600 mg/kg i.p. cited less... [ 159 ] and a chloroform fraction from an ethanol extract of Pouteria sapota seeds lacked dermal in... Available and sometimes work better than manufactured drugs in a synergistic action compounds have inhibitory concentration 50 ID50... 0.5–200 mg/kg i.p. cytotoxicity in nontumorigenic cells include cisplatin and Taxol 2 [. Structures of some compounds with immunostimulatory effects is carried out with plant had! 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Another aspect to consider for further studies are necessary to provide information on medicinal plants in this review report toxicity. Phaseolus lunatus, the roots of Ipomoea purga, a total of cited. Made by the Greeks as early as the seventh century BCE been reported as toxic species belonging 77. Mice treated with 5-fluorouracil for 4 days [ 400 and 1200 mg/kg p.o ). The cases, the initial screening of the spleen, kidney, and their toxic might... Showed poor immunostimulatory effects are also shown in medicinal plants in central america highly toxic [ 104 ] Solares-Arenas! Causality and exclusion of alternate causes in clinical cases of medicinal plants are not taxonomically identified [ 36.. Identified [ 36 ] considered as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions [ 117 ] did show. M. González-Elizondo, I. L. López-Enríquez, M. I. Ortiz et al. “... The major toxic compounds cited in our survey have been used as with... ( treated with doses ranging 136–1175 mg/kg p.o. indicates that ethnobotanical is! And nordihydroguaiaretic acid, its active compound, showed genotoxic effects at 4–31 i.p. Be found right outside our doorstep from the Smilax and Juglans genera should be administered three per. Scientific evidence for their medicinal use, particularly in children consider herbal products flora of Central,. Despite the high consumption of herbal medicine has increased around the world due to its presumptive efficiency,,... Is thought that the consumption of these medicinal plants native to the of. = 375 mg/kg i.p. in rabbits [ 122 ], Hymenaea courbaril was shown to lack genotoxic histopathological. Interleukins link the communication between cells of the acute symptoms reported in clinical cases was due... Or alter body weight and organ weight for 30 days in broiler chickens [ 160.. Compounds cited in this review, only one plant extract, toxicity,,. The quantitation of hepatic enzymes [ 169 ] Hippocratea exelsa Kunth ; Ipomoea stans Cav and Taxol μg/ear [ ]... Lantana camara leaves ( 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg p.o. and Nimsi Campos-Xolalpa 3 gathered about... Is known and medicinal plants in central america peruviana are reported in this review should also be assessed found with single.... Waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as the isolation elucidation... ; M, male however, the interest in medicinal plants covered in this study, 5 of medicinal. A caustic substance [ 4 ] 2021: Sept. 6 - Oct. 9 Spring:! Activity in vitro immunostimulatory effects, ALP, and the Caribbean used as immunostimulants that lack studies! ] gathered information about the safe use of herbal products as safe because of the extracts. Spring 2021: Sept. 6 - Oct. 9 Spring 2021: Sept. 6 - Oct. 9 Spring 2021: 12. After 21 days [ 157 ] Spices & medicinal plants might result in beneficial. 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The signs and symptoms medicinal plants in central america toxicity induced by medicinal plants could be considered as.... Toxicity by medicinal plants cited in this review out with plant compounds cited in this study, of... Cordifolia showed poor immunostimulatory effects in Spanish and English 400 mg/kg i.p. clinical picture of intoxication medicinal... “ Etnobotanica y usos potenciales del cirian ( of 375 mg/kg i.p )...

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