Another way to control spatter is to try a shorter arc length. Shallow PenetrationPenetration refers to the depth the weld enters into the base metal, and usually is not visible. In addition, steels with high sulphur and phosphorus contents are not recommended for production welding. Angle of travel. The type of electrode and the size used for stick welding determine the arc voltage (which ranges between 16 and 40 volts) as well as the amperage (which ranges between 20 and 550 amperes) requirements. This can result in insufficient penetration in those areas. Too long of an arc length will create excess spatter in the weld joint. Welding techniques were developed over time in order to avoid problematic welds and defects and improve your skills. The weld is the result of too much current. Miller respects your privacy concerns. The correct amperage setting primarily depends on the diameter and type of electrode you select. Use a wire brush or grinder to remove dirt, grime or rust from the area to be welded. Learn how to Stick weld or improve your skills with Miller Stick welding resources. For example, doubling the size of a fillet requires four times as much weld metal. Leave a 1/32" gap between plates for free shrinkage movement as the weld cools. Select your amperage based on the electrode (a general rule of thumb is 1 amp for each .001-inch of electrode diameter), welding position (about 15 percent less heat for overhead work compared to a flat weld), and visual inspection of the finished weld. In addition, you can change the electrical path by shifting the work connection to the other end of the piece or by making connections in several locations. If your amperage is too low, your electrode will be especially sticky when striking an arc, your arc will keep going out while maintaining the correct arc length or the arc will stutter. "Stick Welding TechniquesBefore welding make a final check and remove consumable material. Sufficient root opening is needed for full penetration, while excessive root opening wastes weld metal and slows welding speed. A good, solid electrical connection is important to maintain arc quality. Lack of fusion is often visible and must be eliminated for a sound weld. You can manage your subscription(s) by signing into your account. Already signed up? Avoid Buildup and OverweldingFillets should have equal legs and a nearly flat bead surface. Current setting: The electrode you select will determine whether your machine should be set up in DC positive, DC negative or AC. If you have trouble seeing, move your head, rather than lengthening the arc. It’s also ugly, leaving a lot of splatters. Or, try using a shorter arc length. Properly addressing these five basic areas can improve your results. Here the welder uses a semi-circular motion to create a wider bead with a stacked dimes appearance. 6. This reduces the amount of alloy added to the weld from melted base metal, On multiple pass or fillet welds, be sure the first bead is of sufficient size and of flat or  convex shape to resist cracking until the later beads can be added for support. If they must be welded, use small diameter, low hydrogen electrodes. Simply put, stick welding is a manual arc welding process that utilizes a flux-covered electrode to weld. Proper joint geometry is based upon some simple principles: 4. Adjust your. Sometimes the sulfur content of free machining steels can be high enough to prevent successful welding. And, if you are experiencing problems, being able to troubleshoot and make corrections will also turn a beginning stick welder into a professional in no time. Miller respects your privacy concerns. It required expert labor. Sign in / Create Account. Sign in / Create Account. Start by finding a good body position that gives you an adequate view of the puddle, while also allowing you to stabilize and manipulate the electrode. When welding vertical up, if you focus on welding the sides of the joint, the middle will take care of itself. Be sure to keep the puddle molten for a longer time to allow gases to boil out before it freezes. As a good starting point, arc length should not exceed the diameter of the metal portion (core) of the electrode. Be sure the edges of the joint are clean, or use an AWS E6010 or 11 electrode to dig through the dirt. Usually stick welding is known as SMAW welding process wherein a flux-coated stick electrode is used to fill the joint. The electrode manufacturer usually indicates the electrode’s operating ranges on the box or enclosed materials. The electric arc provides excellent weld penetration, which makes it ideal for use on thicker metals. If you are welding with low-alloy steels and carbon steels with chemistry compositions above the "normal range", they will have a tendency to crack, particularly when welding on heavy plate and rigid structures. Traveling too slowly produces a wide, convex bead with shallow penetration and the possibility of cold-lapping, where the weld appears to be simply sitting on the surface of the material. Or if you don't have a Miller account, create one today. This article will cover basic welding techniques in "stick welding. Select Steel in the Normal Range Safety precautions. It is important to note that the root opening must be consistent with the diameter of the electrode being used. Software Version: WebSetup2.0.08059_11_3_2020_1_09_AM. (Electrode positive provides about 10 percent more penetration at a given amperage than AC, while DC straight polarity, electrode negative, welds thinner metals better.) Circles to fuse the metal in a circular motion. Stick Guidelines. Remember to allow some gap at the bottom of the joint. Read our privacy policy for more information. When welding from left to right, maintain a 0 to 15-degree angle tilted towards the direction of travel. Make sure your stance allows you to comfortably support and manipulate the electrode. Other welding techniques offer the same result; the difference is in how you go about it. (.125 inch) electrode is used, so the operator starts at 125 amps. Selecting these steels will make the stick welding process easier since they can be welded at fast speeds with minimum cracking tendencies. If there is too much heat input you get burn through. The torch must be at least 15-20 degrees away from the surface material … Hold the electrode perpendicular to the joint, and then tilt the top in the direction of travel approximately 5 to 15 degrees. Vertical and Overhead Stick Welding. Follow Simple Principles for Joint Geometry and FitupJoint dimensions are chosen for fast welding speeds and good weld quality. These tips, along with practice and patience, will get you headed in the right direction to improve your stick welding technique. The high heat of stick welders makes this process unsuitable for thin metals. Peen each bead while it is still hot to relieve stresses. Or if you don't have a Miller account, create one today. Training Materials. Please try again later. For full- strength welds, penetration to the bottom of the joint is required. 3. In general, weld seal beads on flat work with 3/16" AWS E6010 at approximately 150 amps DC+. If the problem recurs frequently, store open containers of electrodes in a heated cabinet. Any variations in a given joint will force the operator to slow his or her welding speed to avoid burnthrough and manipulate the electrode to adjust for the fitup variation. Length of arc: The correct arc length varies with each electrode and application. Posters. Another term for this same welding method is Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), or Arc Welding for short. Hold the electrode perpendicular to the joint, and then tilt the top in the direction of travel approximately 5 to 15 degrees. You may also do this by welding toward heavy tacks or finished welds, using run-out tabs; adding steel blocks to change work current path or tacking small plates across the seam at the weld ends. Why? Then change the electrode angle so the arc force holds the metal in the corners. Speed of travel: Your travel speed should allow you to keep the arc in the leading one-third of the weld pool. *Please select at least one e-Newsletter. Learn the five basic elements of stick welding technique to significantly improve your stick welding results. So for welding Aluminum through stick welder needs accuracy and patient. : Each welder manipulates the electrode a little differently. (Electrode positive provides about 10 percent more penetration at a given amperage than AC, while DC straight polarity, electrode negative, welds thinner metals better.) Stick welding is a difficult but exciting process. For welding extended periods in one place, flux-cored wire might be a good alternative. Best-of-class dependable, portable, powerful stick welder. If the molten metal is running in front of the arc, change the electrode angle. This can lead to excess spatter and higher potential for undercut. If you are using AWS E6010 or 11 electrodes, make sure that they are not too dry. Position yourself so you have a good view of the weld puddle. A root face or a backup strip is required for fast welding and good quality. The above instruction and technique will help both expert and beginner for welding Al with a stick welder. If you are stick welding / arc welding and If you have an unusually big gap to fill,... Don’t fear the amperage. There are several ways to control excessive spatter. : The correct arc length varies with each electrode and application. If you’re welding with amperage set too low, your electrode will be especially sticky when striking an arc, the arc will keep going out while maintaining the correct arc length or the arc will stutter. CrackingCracking is a complex subject because there are many different types of cracks that occur in different locations throughout a weld. However, if you pause for a brief moment after every few triangles you will get better penetration and fusion. At least one newsletter must be selected. If you’ve ever had a welding lesson, you may have heard stick welding tips … UndercuttingUndercutting is frequently just an appearance problem, but it can impair weld strength when the weld is loaded in tension or subjected to fatigue. Here are the advantages. When first attempting to stick weld, it seems natural to use too long of an arc, possibly to help get a better view of the arc and puddle. Make sure you have it set correctly for your application. We use cookies to help our website work more effectively and efficiently, and to align our services and advertisements to your needs.You can read our Cookie Policy here, which describes browsing and search options available to you.By clicking "Accept" you agree to us using cookies in the manner described in our Cookie Policy. Easy-to-use and versatile MIG, Stick and DC TIG welder that helps build skills. Minimize admixture of base metal into weld metal by using low current and fast travel speeds for less penetration. Vertical Tee Joint Welding Techniques: Vertical stick welding a tee joint requires you to weld from the bottom up: A good technique is to guide the welding rod in a weaving motion in the shape of a triangle. Stick welding is the most common form of arc welding, but creating a good weld may not be easy for the beginner. For the best view, keep your head off to the side and out of the weld fumes to ensure you’re welding in the joint and keeping the arc on the leading edge of the puddle. Wet electrodesIf polarity and current are within the electrode manufacturer's recommendations but the arc action is rough and erratic, the electrodes may be wet. If you travel too slowly, the heat will be directed into the puddle and not into the weld, leading to cold lap or poor fusion. Go out of position and all hell may break loose. However, it’s still commonly used on construction sites or for repairs and maintenance. To overcome shallow penetration, try higher currents or slower travel. To control a wandering arc, the best option is to change to AC welding. Stick welding in the flat, horizontal and overhead positions uses a drag or backhand welding technique. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding requires more skill and takes longer than MIG … But, electrode size may be limited especially on sheet metal and root passes, where burnthrough can occur. I call it stick welding but there are still quite a few folks who call stick welding "arc welding". For example, a deep, narrow bead may lack penetration and has a strong tendency to crack. Stick Welding Hints & Tips. See illustration A for that. Select Steel in the Normal RangeWhenever possible, select steel within the "normal range," these include AISI-SAE 1015 to 1025 steels with 0.1 percent maximum silicon and sulfur content under .035 percent. If you are new, practice to learn it. This is a greater problem at high currents and in complex joints. Extra buildup is costly in material and time, adds little to weld strength and increases distortion. Degree angle EXX18 electrode at approximately 170 amps techniques produce the best is. 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