Obesity. Systemic risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal disease • Systemic risk factors include smoking, diabetes mellitus, race, genetic factors, male gender, polymorphonuclear (PMN) functional abnormalities, low economic status, low educational level, acquired systemic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and severe malnutrition ( Table 11.1 ). diabetic status of the patient. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? This means that each person has their own level of risk for periodontal disease. A disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Conditions or disease that increase an individual's susceptibility to periodontal infection by modifying or amplifying the host response to the bacterial infection. Periodontal disease is a very prevalent oral condition that exhibits a complex etiology and possesses numerous risk factors. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases. It is important to consider periodontal risk factors because they can affect periodontal disease onset, progression and severity. However, there are at least two significant risk factors‐smoking and diabetes‐which demand attention in current management of periodontal disease. Combined with an existing gum disease problem, teeth grinding and clenching can cause the faster destruction of periodontal tissues. Several studies have reported periodontitis to be associated with increased systemic inflammatory burden mediated perhaps through an acute phase response. Periodontal disease is a very prevalent oral condition that exhibits a complex etiology and possesses numerous risk factors. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. smoking history. The No. Systemic risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal disease, Mechanisms by which systemic risk factors appear to be operating, In the more than 4000 components of smoke, there are many that exaggerate the inflammatory responses to periodontal pathogens and others that s/>, • Systemic risk factors include smoking, diabetes mellitus, race, genetic factors, male gender, polymorphonuclear (PMN) functional abnormalities, low economic status, low educational level, acquired systemic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and severe malnutrition (, • Systemic risk indicators or putative risk factors include low dietary calcium intake, postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteopenia, obesity, stress and inadequate coping, and decreased immunoglobulin 2 (IgG2) antibodies (. 1 systemic condition that increases susceptibility to periodontal disease is diabetes. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. While the main cause of periodontal disease is plaque bacteria, many other risk factors affect your gums and how your body fights a gum infection. Substance abuse 5. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. Systemic risk factors for periodontal diseases, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), on 11: Systemic Risk Factors for Periodontal Diseases, 23: Role of Antimicrobial Therapy in Periodontal Diseases, 14: Local Risk Factors for Periodontal Diseases, 19: Principles of Periodontal Diagnosis and Treatment Planning, 12: Periodontal Diseases and General Health, 31: Non-Plaque-Induced Gingival Conditions and Lesions, Postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteopenia. By continuing to browse 3 In a cross-sectional observational study, Grossi et al 4 showed that the relative risk of light smokers developing periodontal diseases was 2.05; the risk increased to 4.75 among heavy smokers. Risk factors in Periodontal Disease Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This disease is responsible for a considerable portion of tooth loss in the United States. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Diabetes mellitus. Diseases in which neutrophil dysfunction occurs include the lazy leukocyte syndrome associated with localized juvenile periodontitis, cyclic neutropenia, and congenital neutropenia. However, age is only one of the risk factors of periodontal disease. Type I Diabetes mellitus. Given recent developments in clinical studies, revisiting systemic risk factors of periodontitis is warranted. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Individual Modifiable Risk Factors Cigarette smoking is associated with periodontal diseases and tooth loss. For a long time it was thought that bacteria was the factor that linked periodontal disease to other disease in the body; however, more recent research demonstrates that inflammation may be responsible for the association. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Sharing links are not available for this article. Periodontal Disease: Systemic Risk Factors, https://doi.org/10.1177/107834580200900303, Relationship of Cigarette Smoking to Dental Caries in a Population of Female Inmates. All these factors should be contemplated and evaluated together. Dental and medical practitioners should be aware of the clinical implications of these inter-relationships and treat affected patients in collaboration for better oral and general health. Department of Restorative Dentistry at the University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Dentistry, Jackson, Department of Periodontics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Dentistry, Jackson. Table 11.1 Systemic risk determinants for periodontal disease. Many of the systemic risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, are … If any of these elements resonate with the patient on a personal level, they should increase their diligence around good oral hygiene and regular check ups. component of prevention and treatment of adult periodontitis. Certain systemic diseases, medications, radiotherapy, and behavioral factors, such as oral hygiene and compliance with periodontal maintenance therapy, appear to significantly increase the risk of disease. Our patients need to be educated on what periodontitis is and the associated risk factors for the disease. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. The No. The number one systemic condition that increases susceptibility to periodontal disease is diabetes. The role of predisposing factors in periodontal disease - Systemic and local risk (including lifestyle risk and general risk). Hormonal changes (sometimes caused by pregnancy or menopause) 2. Systemic conditions associated with reduced neutrophil numbers or function are also important risk factors in children, juveniles, and young adults. Poor oral health habits 6. The initiation, progression, and treatment of the disease are affected by local and systemic risk factors. Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal diseases may be risk factors for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and pulmonary infections. Periodontal disease (PD) comprises a group of diseases involving inflammatory aspects of the host and dysbiotic events that affect periodontal tissues and could have systemic implications. This article reviews systemic risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Personal risk factors for generalized periodontitis, Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases, Genetic influences in caries and periodontal disease, Advances in the pathogenesis of periodontitis: Summary of developments, clinical implications and future directions, Influence of risk factors on the pathogenesis of periodontitis. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Lean Library can solve it. Stress also is a risk factor for periodontal disease. A functional diagram may help the clinician in determining the risk for disease progression on the subject level. This disease is responsible for a considerable portion of tooth loss in the United States. Risk factors and modifying factors, on the other hand, are systemic factors. • Regular dental visits, anaemia and anti-allergy medications protect against periodontal disease. 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