The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar (Tamil: தமிழர், romanized: Tamiḻar, pronounced [tamiɻaɾ] in the singular or தமிழர்கள், Tamiḻarkaḷ, [tamiɻaɾxaɭ] in the plural) or simply Tamils (/ˈtæmɪls/), are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry to the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Union territory of Puducherry or to Sri Lanka. 'Kalabhraas were denounced as 'evil kings' (, 'Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the Cholas, the Pandyas, the, (Source- K.A. Indiahas two main language families: Dravidian which is spoken by over 24% of the population and Indo-Aryan (used by 74% of the residents). Silapathiharam, Tamil literature from the 2nd century CE, refers to the sale of Silamabam instructions, weapons and equipment to foreign traders. Amman, Mariamman, Durgai, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Kali and Saptakanniyar are venerated in all their glorious forms. [227] A famous Sri Lankan Tamil specialty is kottu roti, available in most Sri Lankan restaurants in the country and abroad. In 1335, Madurai, the Pandyan capital, was conquered by Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan and a short-lived Madurai Sultanate was established, but was captured in 1378 by the Vijayanagara Empire. There is epigraphic evidence of people identifying themselves as Damelas or Damedas (the Prakrit word for Tamil people) in Anuradhapura, the capital city of Rajarata, and other areas of Sri Lanka as early as the 2nd century BCE. Hinduism has approximately 1.2 billion adherents worldwide (15% of world's population).Nepal (81.3%) and India (79.8%) are countries with Hindus being the majority of their respective populations. Population of Sri Lanka: today, historical, and projected population, growth rate, immigration, median age. Disadvantages of genetically modified foods essay bad advice essay essay population tamil in World introduction section of a dissertation manifesto three classic essays on how to change the world. Over many centuries a fusion of, Pieris, P.E. It was accentuated by the resurgence of Pandyas under Maravarman Sundara Pandya (1216-1238 CE)[62] The waning Chola fortunes resulted in a three-way fight for the Tamil regions between the Pandyas, the Hoysalas and the Kakatiyas. The Saivist tradition of Hinduism is significantly represented amongst Tamils, more so among Sri Lankan Tamils, although most of the Saivist places of religious significance are in northern India. [172] The warm-up phase includes yoga, meditation and breathing exercises. [89][90] In Mahavamsa, a historical poem, ethnic Tamil adventurers such as Elara invaded the island around 145 BCE. Mattu Vandy Elgai Panthayam (Reckla Race): Gadgil, M. & Joshi, N.V. & Shambu Prasad, U.V. The worship of Amman, also called Mariamman, thought to have been derived from an ancient mother goddess, is also very common. Tamil population by nation. [163] It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory. [150] In the Sangam literature, there is an elaborate description of the rites performed by the Kurava priestess in the shrine Palamutircholai. [41] Large quantities of Roman coins and signs of the presence of Roman traders have been discovered at Karur and Arikamedu. [127][128][129][130], Tamils have strong attachment to the Tamil language, which is often venerated in literature as Tamil̲an̲n̲ai, "the Tamil mother". In Tamil Nadu, Christians and Muslims account for 6% and 5.8% respectively. Tamil Nadu adds more than 1 million people to its growing population each year. [67][68] According to historian Nilakanta Sastri, Kulottunga avoided unnecessary wars and had a long and prosperous reign characterized by unparalleled success that laid the foundation for the well being of the empire for the next 150 years.[69]. There were trade relationship between the Roman Empire and Pandyan Empire. Hello Everybody, Here is the list of the world's top 10 countries by Tamil speaking population. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. The world population is assessed to be growing at a rate of 1.05 percent each year. The classical Tamil literature, referred to as Sangam literature, is attributed to the period between 300 BCE and 300 CE. [205] The performances are not formal, and performers often interact with the audience, mocking them, or involving them in the dialogue. Arthur Downer-November 14, 2020 0. [149] The temples of the Sangam days, mainly of Madurai, seem to have had priestesses to the deity, who also appear predominantly as goddesses. The yearly growth rate has halved post-1960s and is estimated to fall in later years. The painting's base is made of cloth and coated with zinc oxide, over which the image is painted using dyes; it is then decorated with semi-precious stones, as well as silver or gold thread. [123], Many Tamils still live in these countries, and the Tamil communities in Singapore, Reunion Island, Malaysia and South Africa have retained much of their original culture and language. [93], In the 9th and 10th centuries CE, Pandya and Chola incursions into Sri Lanka culminated in the Chola annexation of the island, which lasted until the latter half of the 11th century CE, after which Chola influence declined in Sri Lanka. The drama is opened by a woman playing the part of a female soothsayer of the kurava tribe (people of hills and mountains), who tells the story of a lady pining for her lover. [194], Tamil sculpture ranges from elegant stone sculptures in temples, to bronze icons with exquisite details. [170] According to George L. Hart, the legend of the Tamil Sangams or literary assemblies was based on the Jain sangham at Madurai. Historical Dictionary of the Tamils, Vijaya Ramaswamy, Scarecrow Press, 22 May 2007. Along with Christianity (31.5%) and Islam (23.2%), Hinduism is one of the three major religions of the world by percentage of population. Tamil theatre has a long and varied history whose origins can be traced back almost two millennia to dance-theatre forms like Kotukotti and Pandarangam, which are mentioned in an ancient anthology of poems entitled the Kalingathu Parani. Although the Pallava records can be traced from the 2nd century CE, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the 6th century. At about the same time, many Tamil businessmen also migrated to other parts of the British Empire, particularly to Burma and East Africa. The Hindu festival Deepavali is celebrated with fanfare; other local Hindu festivals include Thaipusam, Panguni Uttiram, and Adiperukku. The Tamil cuisine in Sri Lanka differs little from that of South India. [45] These invaders are described as 'evil kings' and 'barbarians' coming from lands to the north of the Tamil country, but modern historians think they could have been hill tribes who lived north of Tamil country. Classical Tamil music is dominated by the Carnatic genre, while gaana and dappan koothu are also popular genres. [57] The Pallavas pioneered the building of large, ornate temples in stone which formed the basis of the Dravidian temple architecture. World Population Day 2020/ Importance of world Population Day/ Theme of world Population Day 2020. The names of the three dynasties, Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras, are mentioned in Tamil Sangam literature and grammatical works like Tolkappiyar refers to them as the "Three Glorified by Heaven", (Tamil: வாண்புகழ் மூவர், Vāṉpukaḻ Mūvar ?). Tamil is the main language spoken here and also the official one by being one of the oldest languages in the world. There are 36 tribes and sub tribes in Tamil Nadu. The forms of martial suicide were known as Avipalli, Thannai, Verttal, Marakkanchi, Vatakkiruttal and Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram. [178][179] There are several ancient Tamil, Greek, Chinese and Roman literary references to high carbon Indian steel since the time of Alexander's India campaign. Classical Tamil literature, which ranges from lyric poetry to works on poetics and ethical philosophy, is remarkably different from contemporary and later literature in other Indian languages, and represents the oldest body of secular literature in South Asia. [38] Sivan was also seen as the supreme God. 11, Dennis Kennedy "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance, Publisher:Oxford University Press. Gerald W. R. Ward. Notes: a. • Tamil population of Toronto is 122,000 (4.4% of Toronto). A South Indian Journey: The Smile of Murugan, Michael Wood (2002), p. 76. [115] The Sri Lankan government allegedly committed war crimes against the civilian Sri Lankan Tamil people during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009, when the leader of the Tigers, Prabhakaran, was killed. [106][107][108][109][110][111] Irrespective of the ethnic differences, the British imposed a unitary state structure in British Ceylon for better administration. The following table shows the total number of people belonging to each religion in Tamil Nadu. [113] After the British colonial rule in Sri Lanka ended, ethnic tension between the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils rose. The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its Archaeology and Literature. The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar or simply Tamils (/ˈtæmɪls/), are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry to the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Union territory of Puducherry or to Sri Lanka. King Krishna III, the last great Rashtrakuta king consolidated the empire so that it stretched from the Narmada River to the Kaveri River and included the northern Tamil country (Tondaimandalam) while levying tribute on the king of Ceylon. In 2018, … Deshpande and P.E. Literacy rate of the population is 27.9%. [61], Under Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas became dominant in the 10th century and established an empire covering most of South India and Sri Lanka. Parpola, Asko (1974). This religion was transmitted through the Tamil language. Tolkappiyam mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Seyyon in Kurinji-the hills, Thirumal in Mullai-the forests, Korravai in Marutham-the plains, and Wanji-ko in the Neithal-the coasts and the seas. In Singapore, Mauritius and Reunion, Tamil students learn Tamil as their second language in school. English historian and broadcaster Michael Wood called the Tamils the last surviving classical civilisation on Earth, because the Tamils have preserved substantial elements of their past regarding belief, culture, music and literature despite the influence of globalization.[23][24]. [112] During the British colonial rule, many Tamils held higher positions than the Sinhalese in the government, because they were favored by the British for their qualification in English education. [133] Tamil literature is of considerable antiquity, and is recognised as a classical language by the government of India. [125], A large emigration also began in the 1980s, as Sri Lankan Tamils sought to escape the ethnic conflict there. The "Nakar" used the cobra totem known as "Nakam" in the Tamil language, which is still part of the Hindu Tamil tradition in Sri Lanka today as a subordinate deity. de Leeuw & Ubaghs, J.M.M. [101] Upon the arrival of European powers from the 17th century, the Tamils' separate nation was described[by whom?] Update to date information about population of Sri Lanka in 2020. The goddess Parvati is often depicted as a goddess with green skin complexion in Tamil Hindu tradition. A wrinkle in time essay ideas! Don't forget to SUBSCRIBE my channel for more upcoming videos. This Sri Lankan civil war led to death of over 100,000 people, according to the United Nations. Population growth in Sri Lanka has been below 1.00% since 2000. [26] Tamiḻar is etymologically related to Tamil, the language spoken by Tamil people. Resident Indian Tamil population. Highlights: • Tamil population of Canada 157,000.Tamil is the 16th most spoken immigrant language in Canada. [191] Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East.[191]. Silambam originated in ancient Tamil Nadu and was patronized by the Pandyans, and Cholas, who ruled over this region. Hart, G.L. [121], Under the terms of an agreement reached between the Sri Lankan and Indian governments in the 1960s, about 40 percent of the Indian Tamils were granted Sri Lankan citizenship, and many of the remainder were repatriated to India. [70] The Hoysalas played a divisive role in the politics of the Tamil country during this period. Hi friends,here is an essay about world Population Day. In the 10th century, the philosopher Ramanuja propagated the theory of Visishtadvaitam. Tamil film industry has its headquarters in Chennai and is known as Kollywood; it is the second largest film industry in India after Bollywood. The most important Tamil author was the poet and philosopher Thiruvalluvar, who wrote the Tirukkuṛaḷ, a group of treatises on ethics, politics, love and morality widely considered the greatest work of Tamil literature. It also mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence 113 years before then. [26] Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. In the ensuing wars for supremacy, he emerged as the single most victorious ruler and the Pandya kingdom reached its zenith in the 13th century during his reign. & Manoharan, S. & Patil, S. (1997). Seric Iron to the Romans, Egyptians, Chinese and Arabs by 500 BCE. Tamils in Sri Lanka are classified into three ethnicities by the, Lockard: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Therukkūthu has, in recent times, been very successfully adapted to convey social messages, such as abstinence and anti-caste criticism, as well as information about legal rights, and has spread to other parts of India. British colonists consolidated the Tamil territory in southern India into the Madras Presidency, which was integrated into British India. [177], The Wootz steel originated in South India and Sri Lanka. to Anuradhapura between the 7th and 11th centuries CE in such large numbers that local chiefs and kings trying to establish legitimacy came to rely on them. [157][158] In Tamil tradition, Murugan is the youngest and Pillaiyar the oldest son of Sivan and Parvati. The Tamil people are an ethnic group from South Asia. This led to the emergence of three new Sinhalese caste groups: the Salagama, the Durava and the Karava. [73] In the 14th century, the Pandyan empire was engulfed in a civil war and also had to face repeated invasions by the Delhi Sultanate. [14], From the 4th century BC onwards,[15] urbanisation and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coasts of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil empires, the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas and Pallavas and a number of smaller states, all of whom were warring amongst themselves for dominance. This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (1977). There are approximately 3,324,047,000 men in the world, out of a total population of 6,615,852,000. The cult of the mother goddess is treated as an indication of a society which venerated femininity. [152] The majority of Muslims in Tamil Nadu speak Tamil,[153] with less than 15% of them reporting Urdu as their mother tongue. The well-known Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a T(ra)mira samghata (Confederacy of Tamil rulers) dated to 150 BC. In 2018, the state population was recorded to be 80,351,195. Folk India: A Comprehensive Study of Indian Folk Music and Culture, Vol. In 2004, Tamil was the first of six to be designated as a classical language of India. [171], Various martial arts including Kuttu Varisai, Varma Kalai, Silambam, Adithada, and Malyutham are practised in Tamil Nadu. Theatrical culture flourished among Tamils during the classical age. In 1948 about 700,000 Indian Tamil tea plantation workers from Sri Lanka were made stateless and deported to India. Most of these have emerged fairly recently, dating to the colonial and post-colonial periods, but some date back to the medieval period. historical and predicted populations (both sexes) for the period 1800-2100 (in billions). The eventual decline of Chola power in South India began towards the end of Kulottunga III's reign. Ventar were the chieftains of the three major lineages, viz Cera, Cola and Pandya. [46] This period, commonly referred to as the Dark Age of the Tamil country, ended with the rise of the Pallava dynasty. The crucible steel production process started in the sixth century BCE, at production sites of Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu, Golconda in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Sri Lanka and exported globally; the Tamils of the Chera Dynasty producing what was termed the finest steel in the world, i.e. Some Tamils, especially those belonging to the Brahmin caste are vegetarian because of religious reasons. Ancient Tamil Sangam literature and grammatical works, Tolkappiyam; the ten anthologies, Pattuppāṭṭu; and the eight anthologies, Eṭṭuttokai also shed light on ancient Tamil people. Production sites from antiquity have emerged, in places such as Anuradhapura, Tissamaharama and Samanalawewa, as well as imported artifacts of ancient iron and steel from Kodumanal. The Tamil martial arts also includes various types of weapons. Similarly, the Tamil speaking parts of Sri Lanka joined with the other regions of the island in 1802 to form the Ceylon colony. [169] Kambaramayanam is the Tamil version of Hindu Epic Ramayana, which was written by the Tamil poet Kambar during 12 century. He then marched up to Nellore and celebrated his victories there by doing the virabisheka(anointment of heroes) after defeating the Kakatiya ruler, Ganapati. 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST) Other Backward Classes (OBCs) form 68% of Tamil nadu population. Tamil Nadu has a total population of 81.5 million, making it the seventh most populous state in India. [85] The many Brahmic inscriptions found in Sri Lanka, with Tamil clan names such as Parumakal, Ay, Vel, Uti (Utiyan), Tissa (Ticaiyan), Cuda/Cula/Cola, Naka etc., point out to early close affinity between Sri Lanka and South India. Current projections show that the population will reach its peak around 2037 at 22.19 million people, after which the population will begin declining. [164] They often carry inscriptions displaying a variety of adornments, including bas relief panels, friezes, and figures on carved stone. One of the Tamil folk dances is karakattam. [99] Akalesvara was the chief minister of the Sinhalese king Parakramabahu V (1344–59 CE) and soon became the real power behind the throne. The land was supposed to have been destroyed by a deluge. The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art. Jatavarman Sundara Pandya first put an end to Hoysala interference by expelling them from the Kaveri delta and subsequently killed their king Vira Someswara in 1262 AD near Srirangam. [167] Their worship often centres around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. 4-5 stars based on 97 reviews Interview case study pdf conclusion essay about healthy. Religion Data. [38] Early iconography of Seyyon[135] and Sivan[136][137][138] and their association with native flora and fauna goes back to the Indus Valley Civilization. License : … [126] Today, the largest concentration of Sri Lankan Tamils outside Sri Lanka can be found in Toronto. Population of Tamil Nadu in 2013 Population of Tamil Nadu in 2013 was estimated to be 74,319,357 (7.4 Crore). [122], Significant Tamil emigration began in the 18th century, when the British colonial government sent many poor Tamils as indentured labourers to far-off parts of the Empire, especially Malaya, South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. [192], The most important form of Tamil painting is Tanjore painting, which originated in Thanjavur in the 9th century. Tamil is an official language in Sri Lanka and Singapore. Lghtner Publishing Company (1963), Sharma, Manorama (2004). As it is the resources there are limited and the ever-increasing population just makes it worse. About 88%[152] of the population of Tamil Nadu are Hindus. [82][83] Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archeologists to the 10th century BCE. [81] Settlements of people culturally similar to those of present-day Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu in modern India were excavated at megalithic burial sites at Pomparippu on the west coast and in Kathiraveli on the east coast of the island, with villages established between the 5th century BCE and 2nd century CE. Both are celebrated by almost all Tamils, regardless of religion. With a population of 75,478,738 (7.5 crore) people, Tamil Nadu is ranked as 7th populous state of India. Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu, which literally means “The Land of Tamils.” According to the 2001 Indian census, close to 90% of people living in Tamil Nadu speak it fluently. Around their neck to escape captivity and torture makes it worse koothu are also popular genres there trade! Includes estimated population of Sri Lanka who are speakers of the world 's top 10 countries by Tamil population! Official language in Canada often depicted as a classical language by the Tamil territory in southern India the! 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