Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. 4 is a detail) (Domenech). 17); the book, aimed at children, won a Newbery Medal. A close look at the edging on de Pareja’s white collar shows the loose but delicate way that the lace is painted – it is not detailed, but merely suggested. The hanging sleeves are outdated by this time in other countries; in The Dictionary of Fashion History (2010), Valerie Cumming, C. W. Cunnington, and P. E. Cunnington describe: “Period: ca. His early style was naturalistic with a fondness for dramatic shadows and contrasts (Fig. developed a uniquely personal style characterized by very loose, expressive brushwork” (Sánchez). Oil on canvas; 107 x 77.5 cm (42 1/8 x 30 1/2 in). Minneapolis Institute of Art, 84.5. Juan de Pareja, pintor español. Get this from a library! Salomon, Xavier F. and Keith Christiansen. Source: MIA, Fig. It is, however, similar to the casual style of the man in figure 12 is wearing, and appropriate enough for the “somewhat shorter and fuller [English] hairstyle of the early 1650s” (Ribeiro 116). Juan de Pareja’s portrait is unique in two respects: it is one of the few from this era for which we have evidence of public acclaim, and it is the earliest Spanish portrait that we know of that depicts a named Black sitter. Fig. 12 - Artist unknown (Spanish). Museu de Belles Arts de València, 572. registered as a painter in Seville before he became Velázquez’s assistant in the early 1630s, which was not usually a position an enslaved person could hold (Fahy 23). Juan de Pareja’s clothing in this portrait is a subdued palette of dark greys and blacks with a pop of white at the neckline. Juan de Pareja’s portrait is unique in two respects: it is one of the few from this era for which we have evidence of public acclaim, and it is the earliest Spanish portrait that we know of that depicts a named Black sitter. 20). Purchase, Fletcher and Rogers Funds, and Bequest of Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot (1876-1967), by exchange, supplemented by gifts from friends of the Museum, 1971. -- Juan de Pareja, the slave who prepares the paints and canvases of the artist Velázquez, describes his work with his master and the climate of Spanish court life. Source: MMA, Fig. If you have suggestions or corrections, please contact us. Photograph. I, Juan de Pareja. He was Spanish of Portuguese descent and was born in Seville in 1599. 8) is odd for such a formal portrait, but since it was painted from life, perhaps he either had them off for working or never had any on in the first place. He was, however, registered as a painter in Seville before he became Velázquez’s assistant in the early 1630s, which was not usually a position an enslaved person could hold (Fahy 23). Tatishcheva. “Free Men and Women of African Ancestry in Renaissance Europe.” In. Collars are another aspect in which Spain lagged behind; notice the rather broad falling bands worn by the men in figures 9 and 12, painted around the same time as de Pareja. Sánchez, Alfonso E. Pérez. Juan de Pareja was born to an African mother, Zulema, and a Spanish father, Juan, in Seville in 1606 (Salomon). He was, however, registered as a painter in Seville before he became Velázquez’s assistant in the early 1630s, which was not usually a position an enslaved person could hold (Fahy 23). There is even what may be a splotch of paint on his elbow (though it has previously been interpreted as a torn sleeve) as if he has pulled his more formal jerkin and cloak on over his work clothes (Rousseau 4). “The Lives of African Slaves and People of African Descent in Renaissance Europe.” In, Met. Respectful and realistic portraits of Black people exist in European portraiture back to. The man in this portrait, Juan de Pareja, was a skilled Spanish artist of African descent. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, RP-P-OB-11.589. 5). Along with the falling band, the cloak and belt may be costume pieces and not his everyday clothing. Worn sometimes with jerkins.” (100). Juan de Pareja started life in the early 1600s as a biracial slave. The strap across Juan de Pareja’s chest is likely a sword belt like the one on Adrián Pulido Pareja in figure 9 – not something an artist would normally have carried. In 1650, while in Rome, Velázquez signed a legal document that granted Pareja his freedom four years later. 1985-27. Ex pareja de Juan Gabriel desmiente ... 10:33. Oil on canvas; 320.5 x 281.5 cm. He is dressed well for a Spanish working-class man, but less fashionably than his enslaver, who can be seen with an exposed shirt in figure 5. Historian Antonio Palomino y Velasco published an account of the event in 1715 and wrote that the painting was: Cumming, Valerie, Phillis Cunnington, and C. Willett Cunnington. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Juan de Pareja (c. 1606 in Antequera – 1670 in Madrid) was a Spanish painter, born into slavery in Antequera, near Málaga, Spain. Perhaps the most famous painting inspired by it is surrealist artist Salvador Dalí’s, done in 1960 (Fig. This dignified portrait by Diego Velázquez depicts his enslaved Black assistant, Juan de Pareja, who was a skilled artist in his own right. Nils Brahe's Spanish costume, 1655. Yo, Juan de Pareja : y lecturas afines. Men’s garments had pendant streamers attached to the back of the arm-hole; the remains of a true hanging sleeve had become nearly ornamental. Life. Portrait de Iñigo Melchor Fernández de Velasco, 1658. Oil on canvas; 197 x 109 cm. He became equally adept at painting grand portraits (Fig. Velázquez died in 1660 after being made a Knight of Santiago (Sánchez). Oil on canvas; 208 x 138 cm. Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: Multiracial Occupation: Painter. Oil on canvas; 110.5 x 86.4 cm (43 1/2 x 34 in). Juan had been born in Antequera, Spain, around 1610. Historia y técnica. Try When Juan’s mistress dies, he is transferred to Velazquez as a young boy. Source: Goodreads, Fig. [1] Morisco, «de generación mestiza y de color extraño», según Palomino, ayudaba a Velázquez en las tareas de moler los colores y preparar los lienzos. Unless specifically noted, images used in the Timeline are not subject to this Creative Commons License applied to the written work from the Timeline. 1640. Respectful and realistic portraits of Black people exist in European portraiture back to Mostaert in the early sixteenth century, and in genre scenes and other art the date is much earlier. 7 - Frans Hals (Dutch, 1582-1666). Era de origen árabe - como bien se aprecia en sus rasgos - ingresando en el taller del pintor hacia 1630, siendo liberado de su condición de esclavo por el maestro en 1654 y trabajando después como pintor independiente, exhibiéndose algunos de sus cuadros en el Museo del Prado . Paris: Fondation Louis Vuitton. Source: Prado, Fig. 14 - Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (Spanish, 1617−1682). Pintor español. Juan de Pareja se aplicó en la realización de un cuadro y lo colocó vuelto contra la pared. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 13 - Wenceslaus Hollar (Bohemian, 1607-1677). His status before he became Velázquez’s possession is unknown. “Velázquez, Diego.”, Spicer, Joaneath. When the great Velázquez was painting his masterpieces at the Spanish court in the seventeenth century, his colors were expertly mixed and his canvases carefully prepared by his slave, Juan de Pareja. 2 - Diego Velázquez (Spanish, 1599-1660). Portret van een zwarte jongen, 1645. Juan de Pareja, byname El Esclavo (Spanish: “The Slave”), (born c. 1610, Antequera, Spain—died 1670, Madrid), Spanish painter and student of Diego Velázquez. The soft atmosphere of the painting is typical for Velázquez, and if not for the cruel irony in painting his enslaved man so respectfully, this portrait is otherwise as graceful and lovely as those he executed of kings and princesses (Met). American artist Kathleen Giljie repainted the portrait to feature Black American artist Jean-Michel Basquiat (Fig. 18). 4, left) in the same manner that Velázquez painted himself into the famous Las Meninas (Fig. She is currently a Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice Master's student (class of 2021) and researches, writes, and edits material for the Fashion History Timeline. While it is from a decade later, we see that Pareja engages in the fashionable shirt exposure (in which cuffs on the doublet are unnecessary; see figure 7) and sports a much more modest and ordinary collar. Source: AIC, Fig. 1650. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Source: NGV, Fig. Privacy Policy (function (w,d) {var loader = function () {var s = d.createElement("script"), tag = d.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s.src="https://cdn.iubenda.com/iubenda.js"; tag.parentNode.insertBefore(s,tag);}; if(w.addEventListener){w.addEventListener("load", loader, false);}else if(w.attachEvent){w.attachEvent("onload", loader);}else{w.onload = loader;}})(window, document); The Fashion History Timeline is a project by FIT’s History of Art Department. 11 & 14). 2). 17 - Artist unknown. Oil on canvas; 203.8 x 114.3 cm (80.2 x 45 in). 15 - Artist unknown. Ve los perfiles de profesionales con el nombre de «Juan Pareja» en LinkedIn. Robert A. Waller Memorial Fund. 10 - Designer unknown (Spanish). Juan de Pareja… In comparison, de Pareja is dressed in up-to-date clothing, and nothing about his appearance in either of his portraits suggests that he is or was enslaved. This means that while de Pareja probably did not have any control over how Velázquez depicted him, he was eventually able to paint himself as he wished to be known and have the canvas survive the centuries. Juan de Pareja. He was Spanish of Portuguese descent and was born in Seville in 1599. 1872 silk day dress designed by Mon. 7) (Ribeiro 30). Generation Media. Oil on canvas; 121 x 99 cm. Juan de Pareja was born to an African mother, Zulema, and a Spanish father, Juan, in Seville in 1606 (Salomon). Etching on paper; 8 x 5.9 cm. 1650-55. Portrait of the Commander of the Order of Sant Iago, 1630s. There is no decoration on the fabric and his hair – the easiest aspect of fashion to keep up with – is in an older style. 8 - Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (attr.) London: The Wellington Collection, Apsley House, WM.1546-1948. Revisa las traducciones de 'Juan de Pareja' en Alemán. Retrato de don Adrián Pulido Pareja, ca. Óleo sobre lienzo, 81,3 × 69,9 cm. His later work was influenced by other masters like Rubens (Dutch) and Titian (Italian) and he “. 19) and Senegalese artist Omar Victor Diop reimagined himself as de Pareja through the lens of soccer (Fig. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, E3-1976. Whether or not he actually sported them in real life, he was only able to paint himself wearing such fashions after he was manumitted (freed). For Juan de Pareja, 2010. White linen collars were stiffly starched and sometimes even wired when worn by the elite; they would never have stood up quite so well on the men in figures 8 & 11 otherwise. Source: Gilje, Fig. ... La indiferencia del rey Juan Carlos. His early style was naturalistic with a fondness for dramatic shadows and contrasts (Fig. Velázquez died in 1660 after being made a Knight of Santiago (Sánchez). Only a few years later, Elizabeth Borton de Treviño published her semi-fictionalized biography I, Juan de Pareja (1965), complete with a cover showing de Pareja guiding a blond Velázquez in adding the Knight of Santiago symbol on his jerkin in Las Meninas (Fig. While Juan de Pareja is far from the only Black European to have been a skilled artist during the Renaissance, he is more unusual for having a serious portrait by an artist considered to be an Old Master (Lowe 14). Diego Velazquez's Portrait of Juan de Pareja is completed in the artist's recognisable Baroque style. Aparte de su obra como pintor, Pareja es fundamentalmente recordado por el soberbio retrato que de él realizó su maestro Velázquez durante su segundo viaje a Italia. London: National Portrait Gallery, NG1315. His mustache and beard, too, are hardly cutting-edge style – the mustache of choice in the 1650s was the thin, sharp one seen in figures 11 and 14, and beards were often isolated to the chin area (Stainton 126). It has been copied many, many times and often the space in front of it at the Metropolitan Museum of Art is occupied by new artists testing their skills at the easel (Fig. His later work was influenced by other masters like Rubens (Dutch) and Titian (Italian) and he “developed a uniquely personal style characterized by very loose, expressive brushwork” (Sánchez). Juan takes shelter in a stable and gets beaten by Don Carmello who has found him. In the 1650s, doublet waists were newly loose and the most fashionable of men left their buttons open at center front and on sleeves in order to expose their fine white linen shirts (Fig. He executed this portrait while he and de Pareja were in Italy to paint Pope Innocent X in 1650; as the story goes, the window of time to paint the Pope was small and Velázquez decided to practice painting from life on his enslaved assistant (Rousseau 3). Juan de Pareja, esclavo de Velázquez, era originario de Antequera (Málaga). His status before he became Velázquez’s possession is unknown. Portrait of Juan de Pareja, the Assistant to Velázquez, 1960. Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (Fig. Source: MdBAV, Fig. Basquiat as Velazquez’s Portrait of Juan de Pareja, 2011. Kitchen Scene, 1618/20. Later when he wakes he is in the home of Don Diego, his new master. Juan de Pareja is born into slavery in Seville, Spain in the early 1600s, and after the death of his mother when he is just five years old he becomes the pageboy of a wealthy Spanish lady, Emilia. De Pareja also sports a matching dark grey cloak or coat that is slung across one shoulder in a fashionable manner; the slightly later courtier in figure 11 wears one similarly (Tortora 208). Oil on canvas; 81.3 x 69.9 cm (32 x 27 1/2 in). There is an excellent, Newberry Award-winning middle grade novel about Pareja. Juan de Pareja is certainly not the only Black portraitist to have existed during this period, but we are lucky to both know his story and have multiple depictions of him (Spicer 83). Cuando el rey reparó en él e intentó girarlo, Juan de Pareja se arrojó a sus pies confesándose autor del cuadro y le rogó que intercediese para que su amo no le castigase, pues como esclavo no estaba autorizado a pintar. According to early writers, Pareja painted in the manner of Velázquez, but his only known portrait is a mere reflection of Velázquez’s style. 1) is considered to be one of the most important artists of the seventeenth century (Sánchez). Source: Hermitage, Fig. More recently, Chicano artist Rupert García dedicated a mixed media piece to de Pareja (Fig. Historically, we know little of their life except what is portrayed in the paintings and important acts that were documented like marriages and deaths. St. Petersburg: The State Hermitage, GE-324. He was inherited by the acclaimed portraitist Diego Velazquez. He was enslaved by its artist, Diego Velázquez, leading to a portrait that artist Julie Mehretu has described as ‘haunting’ (Met). Compare de Pareja’s ensemble to the artist Bartolomé Esteban Murillo’s self-portrait from about the same time (Fig. His visible garments include a doublet, a jerkin, a cloak or cape, a sword belt, and a collar. Detail of Las Meninas, 1656. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1971.86. 18 - Rupert García (American, 1941-present). The 1650 portrait is touted as being “from life” and indeed reveals Velázquez’s both literal and figurative control over Juan de Pareja and his image. (Spanish, 1617–1682). Velázquez eventually freed him for unknown reasons in 1654, and de Pareja continued to paint until his death around 1670 (Salomon, Domenech). Oil on canvas; 225 x 325 cm. Self-portrait, ca. The Spanish did continue to use hanging sleeves fashionably after 1640 (Fig. Aparte de su obra como pintor, Pareja es fundamentalmente recordado por el soberbio retrato que de él realizó su maestro Velázquez durante su segundo viaje a Italia. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. 15). Compare this clothing with Pareja’s 1661 ensemble in figure 4. es Nos brindan buen testimonio de ello pinturas tales como Velázquez pintando a la infanta Margarita con las luces y las sombras de su propia gloria (1958), Las Meninas (1960) y Retrato de Juan de Pareja reparando una cuerda de su mandolina (1960). Velázquez treated many details of costume like this, so while his portraits are beautiful examples of clothing, the precise characteristics are often lost (Sánchez). 3:46. The unnamed artist in figure 6 may have been a skilled painter, but not to the point of curating his own image: he wears a metal collar and is dressed in clothing a century out of date. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, In 1990-1999, 20th century, garment analysis, In 1860-1869, 19th century, garment analysis, In 1970-1979, 1980-1989, BIPOC, designer profile, LGBTQ+, In 1950-1959, 20th century, garment analysis, LGBTQ+, In 1880-1889, 19th century, artwork analysis, LGBTQ+, In 1900-1909, 1910-1919, 20th century, blog, Last updated Aug 12, 2020 | Published on Aug 12, 2020, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (Fig. 6 - Artist unknown (Possibly Brazilian). 1 - Diego Velázquez (Spanish, 1599-1660). Both are entrenched tropes for Black people in Western art, and a sure sign of enslavement or servitude (Waterfield 141, Lowe 14). Marquand Collection, Gift of Henry G. Marquand, 1890. (There is some debate as to whether the record actually refers to a different Juan de Pareja.) 16); Pareja’s silohuette appears on the right side of the canvas, with the bright white spot serving as his eye. Born: c. 1606 Birthplace: West Indies Died: 1670 Location of death: Madrid, Spain Cause of death: unspecified. The Portrait of Juan de Pareja is a painting by Spanish artist Diego Velázquez of his assistant Juan de Pareja, a notable painter in his own right, who was enslaved and owned by Velázquez at the time the painting was completed. 1) is considered to be one of the most important artists of the seventeenth century (Sánchez). It was there in 1606 or perhaps 1610, about three years before (or one year after) the Moors were expulsed from the city, that Juan de Pareja was born to a Moorish slave named Zulema and a Spanish father named Juan. Source: NPG, Fig. 3) and large religious scenes (Fig. As a young man, he had been consigned to work in Velázquez’s studio, most probably as … Corrections? His naturally curly hair was probably perfectly in fashion in the 1640s, when styles were more evenly concentrated around the top and sides of the head (Ribeiro 116). Consistent with this mission, the Timeline’s written commentary, research, and analysis provided by FIT students, faculty, and other members of the community is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 3) and large religious scenes (Fig. Velázquez treated many details of costume like this, so while his portraits are beautiful examples of clothing, the precise characteristics are often lost (Sánchez). Black ensembles were fashionable in most of Europe for the first half of the sixteenth century; variation in hairstyle, collar width, and silhouette are often the only ways to date a portrait. 9 - Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo (Spanish, 1612–1667). Omissions? 4 is a detail) (Domenech). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Kenna Libes holds a Master's degree in Public Humanities from Brown University and has worked in textile conservation, curation, and collections management at various institutions along the East Coast. Velázquez painted the portrait in Rome, while was traveling in Italy, in 1650. New York: The Frick, 2014.1.01. Man painting a copy of Velázquez' portrait of Juan de Pareja, Before 2020. 10:05. The book follows the story of Juan de Pareja and his life as the slave of Diego de Velázquez, the leading painter in the court of King Philip IV of Spain. Nationality: Spain Executive summary: Velázquez's slave turned painter Source: FLV. Source: Carlton Hobbs, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (Spanish, 1599–1660). While every attempt at accuracy has been made, the Timeline is a work in progress. Brother Isidro saves Juan from death and brings him to a group of people. Both men and women wore black clothing, its sober elegance enlivened by dramatic white ruffs that framed the face.… With the rise of French power in the seventeenth century, the fashion for Spanish black went into decline, except in Spain, where women like the Duchess of Alba continue to wear it.” (n.p.). Pareja, Juan de.Antequera (Málaga), c. 1610 – Madrid, c. 1670.Pintor. Murillo also wears Spanish black, but sports flamboyant paned sleeves that expose his shirt along with a small upright collar (golilla) and very fashionable hair and moustache (Cumming 94). Source: Mapio, Fig. Black Artist Completing a Portrait of Maria Anna of Austria, Queen of Portugal (1683-1754), First quarter of the 18th century. Accessed 5 August 2020. He became equally adept at painting grand portraits (Fig. A close look at the edging on de Pareja’s white collar shows the loose but delicate way that the lace is painted – it is not detailed, but merely suggested. London: Carlton Hobbs, 9897. In most of Europe, the wide white falling bands (collars) of the 1630s and 1640s had finally shrunk. She believes firmly in bringing a working knowledge of garment construction and historical techniques into analyses of historic dress. I, Juan de Pareja, 1965. While the scene appears to be in the manner of other self-portraits, we would expect that – much like de Pareja – an artist’s self-portrait would never be so caricatural, so this is likely by a white painter. Oil on canvas; 74.3 x 88.27 cm (29 1/4 x 34 3/4 in). Grade novel about Pareja. to revise the article Italian ) and “... [ Elizabeth Borton de Trevino assisted the artist in his juan de pareja life right, and hanging were... As Velazquez ’ s features are treated with delicacy, and hanging sleeves fashionably after 1640 ( Fig himself! Both sexes and brings him to a different Juan de Pareja, esclavo de Velázquez llamado Juan Pareja! 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