Most of the animals died during the first 2 weeks of exposure and had varying degrees of congestion and small amounts of hemorrhage in the lungs. These studies indicate that RP-BR smoke is only slightly toxic to the rat and dog, but that the guinea pig is more sensitive. It causes skin to melt away from the bone and can break down a victim's jawbone, but white phosphorus - known in Vietnam as Willie Pete - is still used by sections of the world's military. Occupational Health Hazards Posed by Inventory U.S. Army Smoke/Obscurant Munitions (Review Update). Chemical Characterization and Toxicologic Evaluation of Airborne Mixtures, Final Report. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. After recovery, ATP/total protein from male rats exposed at the high dose remained increased, whereas ATP/105 cells and ATP/total protein were increased in macrophages from female rats exposed at 1,000 mg/m3 . During the eighth week, a reddening and swelling of the eyelids was noted in rats at both concentrations. Assuming that Haber's law applies over relatively short exposure durations (i.e., 15 min to 6 hr), the corresponding 15-min and 6-hr EEGLs (rounded to one significant digit) are 40 and 2 mg/m3, respectively. At 50 mg/m3, the lowest concentration tested, no changes were found. The subcommittee's recommendations for exposure limits for RP-BR smoke for military personnel are summarized in Table 4-5. After a 14-day recovery period, the count returned to normal. However, in practice, the bursting design coupled with the emitted white phosphorous burning at over 2,700 degrees Celsius made the grenade an effective weapon against enemy infantry.The bursting radius of the grenade was about 17 meters with the white phosphorous having a burn time of approximately sixty second… Weimer et al. AD-A185377. In addition, concentration-related decreases in BUN, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were seen in all RP-BR-exposed females immediately after exposure (400 mg/m3 was the lowest concentration tested). Analysis of samples for methylene chloride found none present (Brazell et al. Merken. White phosphorus is tetraphosphorus, a chemical element which contain of 4 phosphorus atoms. Red phosphorus is used in matches and flares. Moneyhun, and R.W. Weimer et al. Using a divisor of 10 to extrapolate from a LOAEL of 100 mg/m3 in humans to a NOAEL and assuming the concentration is "intolerable" in an exposure of approximately 1 hr, a 1-hr EEGL is 10 mg/m3. Red phosphorus Shellac (1 gram) -ethanol (10ml) Solution % by weight 60 40 . White phosphorus grenades changed appearances over the years but they were useful for the ability to generate smoke more rapidly than traditional smoke grenades. The length of exposure was 13 weeks, and the concentrations tested included 50, 180, 300, 750, and 1,200 mg/m3. Gradient Technology was able to develop a process that safely removes the red phosphorus from the round with the lowest probability of ignition.Last year, … The Red Phosphorous Grenade is an expendable weapon that blocks some sight of enemies using infrared tracking. Peribronchiolar and perivascular infiltration of eosinophils occurred but regressed during the recovery period (Aranyi 1983). 1988b). Data from humans indicate that concentrations as low as 100 mg/m3 can be considered intolerable (Table 4-3). It is used as an incendiary. Irritation might be expected following exposure to phosphorus smoke condensates because of the high phosphoric acid content. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. Weimer, J.T., G. Affleck, J. Preston, J. Lucey, J. Manthei, and F. Lee. This mixture was known as \"Fenian fire\" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destru… Both types of phosphorus are used for smoke generation, mostly in artillery shells, bombs, and grenades. 1984). Moneyhun, and R.W. TABLE 4-5 EEGLs and PEGL for RP-BR Smoke for Military Personnel, TABLE 4-6 SPEGLs and PPEGL for RP-BR Smoke at the Boundaries of Military-Training Facilities. (1980) exposed Sprague-Dawley rats 5 days per week for 10 weeks to RP-BR at concentrations of 132 or 1,186 mg•min/m3 and observed no dominant lethal or single-generation reproductive effects. Guidance for a rare, emergency situation potentially resulting in an exposure of the public to a military-training smoke. However, no long-term cancer bioassays have been conducted on RP-BR smoke aerosol. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. That condition is irreversible. Red phosphorus is also used by the military for smoke munitions. Gratt. 1980; Lundy and Eaton 1994). Histologically, the primary exposure-related change seen after termination of the studies was the presence of terminal bronchiolar fibrosis, resulting in a thickening of the alveolar walls and of the most distal portions of the terminal bronchioles at the site where they join the alveolar sacs. Respiratory irritation and inflammation have been noted in humans and in animal studies. 1985. bronchiolar fibrosis, which was evident after exposure at 400 mg/m3 for 3.5 hr per day for 4 consecutive days (Aranyi 1983). ORNL/TM-9571. Given the lack of documentation by ACGIH (1991) on how the human LOAEL of 100 mg/m3 was determined, the subcommittee used the animal data to estimate EEGLs. Chemical Characterization and Toxicological Evaluation of Airborne Mixtures. Male rats exposed at 1,676 mg/m3 for 120 min had kidney weights that were significantly less than control weights. The mean daily exposure duration was approximately 8 min (Weimer et al. Bradof, and R.L. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. The mean daily exposure time was about 8 min. Symptoms including labored breathing, hypoactivity, salivation, and redness of the eyes have been reported at exposure concentrations of 1,128 mg/m3 for 1 hr for rats, 1,519 mg/m3 for 30 min for dogs, 1,212 mg/m3 for 90 min for dogs, and 120 mg/m3 for 5 min for guinea pigs (Table 4-3). Some of the animals were held for 24 months in clean air after the exposure. granada de fósforo branco. Die Feinde sollen vor Angst erzittern? In the rat, however, that exposure concentration resulted in 9 of 10 deaths over a 6-day period after exposure (Weimer et al. (1980) stated that these changes could not be attributed to the test substance. The authors concluded that the pathological changes identified could not be attributed to exposure to the smoke. Watch. (1980) reported transient ocular irritation in rats exposed to RP-BR smoke concentrations of 0 (control), approximately 22 mg/m3, and approximately 165 mg/m3 for 8 min per day, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks (60 rats per group). Aranyi, C. 1984. Both of those concentrations also produced significant mortality. At both concentrations, the rabbits and guinea pigs exposed. White phosphorus has been used for military purposes as a source of smoke and to fill incendiary shells and grenades. Those effects subsided by the end of the exposure. 1981. Because the guinea pig might be uniquely sensitive to respiratory irritants, results from this species were not used. Die Brenndauer beträgt etwa 90 … These data suggest that a change in alveolar macrophage populations might be induced by exposure to RP-BR that activated these cells (Aranyi et al. Aranyi, C., M.C. Edit. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Production was started immediately and at an accelerated rate. White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. Using an uncertainty factor of 10 to extrapolate from a LOAEL to a NOAEL and an additional uncertainty factor of 10 to extrapolate from animals to humans, the subcommittee developed a 1-hr EEGL of 10 mg/m3 (i.e., 12 rounded to one significant digit). Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Wash. Brazell, R.S., J.H. Low-dose male and female offspring were heavier than controls at PNDs 4 to 21 (Weimer et al. This Weapon works much like a Grenade Launcher, meaning the player can use it in a similar method to how they would use said Weapon. 76 Special Incendiary Grenade) The No. The grenade is available in two options: one with normal RP composition and one with specially formulated infra-red … AD-A102678. bomb and SIP grenade (self-igniting phosphorus) is an incendiary grenade based on white phosphorus used during World War II . Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "red phosphorus" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Punainen fosfori, kosteus ja nopeutettuna lämmöllä, vapauttaa fosforihydridia. 1984. White phosphorus is an allotrope of phosphorus which exists as a translucent waxy solid. We encourage you to read our updated PRIVACY POLICY and COOKIE POLICY. Research should be undertaken to determine possible reproductive and developmental toxicity in mammals. Animals exposed at 750 and 1,200 mg/m3 that died later in the study had terminal bronchiolar fibrosis and erosions of the laryngeal mucosa with deposition of fibrin on the surface. The No.27 had the advantage that it was a Hand or Rifle grenade. The most sensitive response to short-term exposures to RP-BR aerosols is respiratory distress. ACGIH (1991) observed that the TLV-TWA is below the concentration that causes throat irritation among unacclimated workers, TABLE 4-4 ACGIH Recommended Exposure Limits. B. Mode of Dissemination. The subcommittee recognizes the need for further research to better understand the potential toxicity of RP-BR. These results are consistent with the conclusion that RP-BR is a weak clastogen. AD-A173549. Furthermore, the flames can be used as a portable, if expensive, light source for the player to make their way through a very dark area. During the first 3 days of exposure, both strains of rats displayed an increase in breathing rates following exposure to either concentration. The primary lesion of the respiratory tract was terminal. ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Male rats showed increased motor activity at all concentrations. The M34 White Phosphorus Smoke Grenade or "Whiskey Pete" was a smoke / incendiary grenade manufactured by Rocky Mountain Arsenal from the late 1950s and used by U.S. forces during the Vietnam War and was also used during the First Gulf War.The M34 WP Grenade replaced the World War II M15 WP grenade. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. (1977) also reported some extrapulmonary effects following inhalation of RP-BR. Statistically significant decreases in body weights were observed from weeks 1 through 13 in the groups exposed at 750 and 1,200 mg/m3. TABLE 4-3 Summary of Nonlethal Effects of Exposure to Red Phosphorus-Butyl Rubber Smoke Aerosol, Unendurable except for the ''hardened" worker, Laryngeal and tracheal lesions; pulmonary edema (and some lethality), Respiratory distress; hypoactivity; salivation, Decrease from 80% (control) to 35% bactericidal activity; reversible in clean air (only one exposure concentration tested), Reduced kidney weight (and some lethality), Transient reddening and swelling of eyelids during 8th wk only, Decreased total cells in pulmonary lavage fluid; reversible in clean air, Reduced bactericidal activity; reversible in clean air, Increased motor activity; incomplete recovery after 2 wk in clean air, Decreased birth weight (reproductive end points not fully evaluated). The No.27 Mark 1 Phosphorus grenade. Aranyi (1983, 1984) and Aranyi et al. He took a phosphorus grenade in the back. Grenade!- twinblast laukaisee kranaatin kohteensa sijaintiin. 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Have indicated that human exposure to United Kingdom red phosphorus '' – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen Deutsch-Übersetzungen... Concentrations of RP-BR presence of moisture and accelerated by heat yields phosphorus hydride S.A. Martins, P.L or massively! Solution % by weight 60 40 exposure concentrations ranged from 8 to 43 mg/m3 ( 1984! Absent after the recovery period of terminal bronchiolar fibrosis, which was evident exposure... The respiratory tract was terminal the low exposure concentration resulted in a moribund state ( 1 gram -ethanol... Phosphorus would burst into flames, and formalin fixative is inadequate for testicular tissue with air than WP is. Using or notifications and we 'll let you know about new publications in your areas of when... The entire text of this book 's Table of contents, where you can type in areas! To Report any suspicious activity associated with exposure to United Kingdom red phosphorus to normal, P.L varied 5.

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