That he refrained from attacking the city of Rome at the height of his successful campaign still surprises historians. This timeline highlights the major events in the history of Ancient Rome. Copyright © (2016 - 2020) Historyly.com. Key events during the life of Hamilcar Barca: The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was … the Second Punic War, when Hannibal invades Italy. The dictator continued with this strategy, resulting in an agitated Hannibal and arrest of many Carthaginians as prisoners. The biggest boost to the Romans was the support of the Massyli tribe, which had originally fought along with the Carthaginians but sided with the Romans after the Battle of Ilipa. Also Read: 15 Things You Should Know About Hiroshima And Nagasaki. One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme rise and subsequent defeat. This battle led to a loss of 2700 cavalrymen and about 45,500 infantry soldiers for the Romans. Fought in Italy in 218 BC, the Battle of Trebia was a major battle between the Carthaginians led by Hannibal and the Roman military under Sempronius Longus. Sempronius Longus’ 40,000 infantry positioned themselves in a triple line with 4,000 cavalry on the side. Regardless, the march of Hannibal and his army is the stuff of legend to this day. He spent the period between the First and Second Punic Wars building up an empire in Spain, and preparing for the inevitable renewal of hostilities. In fact, it would not be an overstatement to say that the Carthaginians were the favorites to win the war from the beginning, only to falter in the later and more decisive stages. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. This rather cowardly act was of course not so popular among the Roman soldiers who gave Fabius the nickname of Cunctator which meant “delayer” since he seemed to avoid battle at a time when Italy was being beaten by its enemies. Roman general Flaminius was also killed in action. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Without a doubt one of the biggest events during the Second Punic War was when Hannibal crossed the Alps to catch the Romans off guard. He got caught and had his hands cut off as a punishment. But despite this advantage, the Carthaginians could not avoid ultimate defeat. A civil war breaks out following his death over making Rome a republic again. The Romans completely destroyed them by 146 BC, thus taking a further step towards ultimate domination of the ancient Mediterranean world. Ancient Rome and Carthage had a long history of conflict that lasted for more than a century. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. This battle eventually led to the fall and defeat of Hannibal Barca who knew about his opponent’s power. Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. But without strong leadership and the resources they had in the previous war, Carthage could only put up a fight for a mere three years. this was the beginning of a real 'empire'. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. They adopted a strategy called Fabian Strategy according to which no active or open fighting was indulged in directly. Even second-hand accounts can be hard to come by, so it's significant that in their A History of Rome, historians M. Cary and H.H. Suggested timing: 2 hour. This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war… The 2nd Punic War was one of the three epic battles fought between Carthaginians and the Romans from 218 BC to 201 BC. 15 Julius Caesar Facts You Might Not Be Aware Of, 15 Greatest Military Leaders of the Ancient World, 13 Fascinating Facts About Hannibal Barca, 11 Forgotten Kingdoms That Are Vanished From History, 13 Things About Davy Crockett You Should Know, 13 Battle of Bosworth Facts You Should Know, 15 Fascinating Facts You Didn't Know About Napoleon…. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. First Punic War (264-241 BCE) – Rome wins Sicily, controls western Mediterranean Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) – Hannibal marches toward Rome; Scipio counterattacks Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) Carthage burned, made a Roman province Hannibal, on the other hand, had a mixture of African, Celtic, and Spanish infantry, 10,000 cavalry, and his notoriously efficient war elephants at the front. Second Punic War was also marked by the happenings of Gallic uprisings that made this war a much more complicated affair for the Romans. He had spies all over Rome; they had even infiltrated the Roman Senate. 2nd Punic War 218 bc - 201 bc. Hannibal, Hamilcar's son, lays siege to the Spanish City of Saguntum. The Battle of Cannae was one of the greatest victories for Hannibal and his troops in the 2nd Punic War. Unlike most of the battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans fared better with cavalry and the Carthaginians had a larger number of infantry. The flash point for the wars was the island of Sicily. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Second Punic War where Hannibal is the primary Carthaginian commander throughout, whereas the Romans had more than a dozen commanders. Publius Scipio moved quickly to counter the new offensive but was ambushed by the Punic cavalry, losing 2,000 men. The former territory of Carthage, Hispania soon became a part of the Roman Empire towards the end of this war. They imposed a war indemnity on them, limited their navy to 10 ships (those 10 ships were spared so that the Carthaginians could ward off possible pirate attacks) and forbade Carthage from assembling any sort of army without the permission of Rome. Throughout the conflict, intelligence played a pivotal role in shaping the direction the war took. The indemnity also required Carthage to obtain permission from Romans before deploying armed forces and gathering them. Feb 1, 2013 218 BC- Hannibal's Movement The Second Punic War was fought from 218 BC to 201 BC and is best remembered for the huge battles fought between the Carthaginians under Hannibal and the Romans under several different generals. In fact, Hannibal’s route across the Alps has been a matter of debate among historians with many of them having their own opinions on the matter. All Rights Reserved. Second Punic War Background Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. It was fought on the shores of Aufidus River and saw Numidian horse cavalry fight off the Romans with courage and tact. This paper analyzes the Second Punic War using the Contextual and Operational Elements found in the Campaign Planning Model to determine how Rome and Carthage conducted the war, and whether they maintained congruency as each respective country pursued their national objective. Battle of Zama Leads to End of Second Punic War 202 BC Scipio Africanus decisively defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama. These two had previously established diplomatic relations with the Carthaginians. At the end of the First Punic War, Sicily becomes Rome's first overseas province c. 240 BC Spain, with its mines of gold, silver and copper, is a hotly disputed region between Carthage and Rome Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. The war lasted for a whole 17 years with the ultimate victory of the Romans. The Battle Of The Punic Wars 3659 Words | 15 Pages. Finally, in 207 B. The battle, which went on to be known as the Battle of Lake Trasimene, saw an effective Carthaginian attack on Roman consul Flaminius and his army of about 25,000 men between the hills at Cortona and Lake Trasimene. ... the First Punic War against Carthage for control of the island of Sicily. Furthermore, Rome imposed a number of sanctions upon the Carthaginians which prevented them from making any further uprisings. The agreement was to offer protection to these 10 ships from the pirates. Among the three Punic Wars, the second war can be termed as the bloodiest with maximum number of battles. For never did any state or nation more efficient in their resources engage in contest; nor had they themselves at any other period so great a degree of power and energy. With Hannibal, these Gallic tribes obtained the control of Placentia and Cremona, Romam colonies. Carthage meted out severe punishments to generals who failed in their mission, even if through events beyond their control, with several commanders suffering death by … Julius Caesar is assassinated. This battle can be termed as one of the biggest events in this war where the Romans displayed a powerful performance with the help of the cavalry. the Third Punic War, when … But eventually, Carthage ignored these sanctions and did raise an army about half a century later, which led to the Third Punic War. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. But when the Carthaginians started their campaign against ancient Rome, the Gallic tribes readily struck an alliance with them to fight the Romans at the front. There were three main fronts in this war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Romans in repeated battles; Hispania, where Hannibal’s younger brother defended Carthaginian colonial cities with gusto; and Sicily, where the Romans never lost their supremacy. Overview of the Second Punic War. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. The Romans suffered such massive setbacks at the hands of the Carthaginians that they appointed a dictator as their commander in chief called Quintus Fabius Maximus temporarily. Second Punic War - Second Punic War Battles. However, the Romans indulged in small and uneventful ‘off the battlefield fights’ to take on the enemy front. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. A dispute between the cities … In addition, the Carthaginians had to abide by the Roman war indemnity that allowed Carthage Naval forces to deploy only 10 ships. Hannibal rose to become a great leader of the Carthaginians that can be regarded as a huge spectacle of the war. Then by the shore of Lake Trasimene, he was all prepared for the enemy with his ambush. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Even though Hannibal’s army invaded Italy from the north and resoundingly defeated the Roman army in several battles, he could never achieve the ultimate goal of causing a political break between Rome and its allies. Punic Wars > Second Punic War. By 146 BC, Carthage was destroyed by the Romans who became the rulers of the Mediterranean region. The Romans won the Battle of Zama by 202 BC because of their massive military strength, and also because of the help rendered by the Massyli Tribe. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. See Ebro Treaty. But soon, Fabius became unpopular in Rome since his tactics did not lead to a quick end to the war and he was removed from his post in the 216 BC election. The Roman Empire was one of the greatest civilizations in history. Hannibal's losses in the Second Punic War effectively put an end to Carthage's empire in the western Mediterranean, leaving Rome in control of Spain and allowing Carthage to retain only its territory in North Africa. While there was Hannibal’s army getting ready to over throw the Roman Empire with his cavalry and war elephants, on the other end there were the Gallic tribes eager to massacre them. With his … Rise and Fall of Hannibal. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. By 206 BC, the war had reached a decisive point. This result sent chills of doubt through Rome and its allies and boosted the confidence of the Carthaginians and other rival tribes. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. With the unprecedented support he received from his Gallic allies, Hannibal was always fed with important information about the goings-on in Rome. Two huge defeats at the hands of the Carthaginians rang an alarm bell among the Romans, and they decided it was time for immediate emergency action to ward off any further loss to the state. Carthage was also forced to give up its fleet and pay a large indemnity to Rome in silver. They brought into action too no art of war unknown to each other, but those which had been tried in the First Punic War; and so various was the fortune of the conflict, and so doubtful the victory, that they who conquered were more exposed to danger.”. 753 BC: The “foundation of Rome” By the last century BC, Romans believed that … This war was fought under the command of Hannibal who fought for Carthage while Romans fought under various generals. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. 218 BCE. Below, we have presented the war’s biggest events that readers must know. These wars were called the Punic Wars. Rome controlled over two million square miles stretching from the Rhine River to Egypt and from Britain to Asia Minor. Carthaginians brought 80 elephants to the battle. Battles. The key event of his time in charge was that in c.226 BC he signed a treaty with Rome agreeing not to interfere north of the River Ebro. 146 BCE. The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. After the death of Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar, Hannibal came to power and he … Battle of Trebia 218 bc. After the First Punic War there was a temporary peace between Carthage and the Romans as both economies were dependent on the Mediterranean Sea as a commercial trading route from Eastern countries like Greece and Lebanon. The Second Punic War was one of the bloodiest wars fought in the ancient world. With his genius, Hannibal Barca, though, gained much ground, but eventually lost to the Romans in this war. Du Bois Life and Contribution, 15 Most Disastrous Pandemics That Changed History, 15 Fearless Female Warriors of Ancient World. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Historians say that at the end of the battle, 45,500 Roman infantry along with 2,700 cavalry had died, with additional numbers taken prisoner. The Roman army constituted a force that was superior both in terms of arms and skill when compared to the Carthaginians. Hannibal remained in Italy for thirteen more years. You have missed one crucial battle….battle of the metaurs (207bc) where Hannibal’s brother (hasdrubal) was marching an army of 30,000 plus engine machines to knee Rome . The Roman military under Scipio had learned many lessons from Hannibal’s tactics and were ready to outwit and beat the Carthaginians in the final showdown. One of the biggest victories for Hannibal and his allies in the Second Punic War was at Cannae on the banks of the Aufidus in 216 BC. When spies were caught, they would be punished harshly. These cookies do not store any personal information. This defeat had a huge psychological effect on the Romans for it sent ripples of panic through Rome, and they started having doubts about the very future of their city. This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC … The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. It began in Rome in 753 BC. To be used with the Vocabulary Summary and Timeline handout. In fact, Hannibal had an intelligence service that led to some of his most outstanding victories. It was a complete success. At the start of the war Carthage was the dominant power … The Ebro Treaty is what ended the Second Punic War. So much so that according to Livy, it was “the most memorable of all wars that were ever waged – the war which the Carthaginians, under the leadership of Hannibal, fought with the Roman people. Ebro Treaty. See Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. They were drawn into battle after an exhausting journey with no food, the result being that most of them were unable to put up a good fight. Important Events. See Second Punic War Battles. b. After Hannibal crossed into Rome, he had to deal with the Roman general Tiberius Sempronius Longus who controlled a army of 45,000 men, roughly 10 to 15 thousand more men than his army. As compared to the mighty Romans, the Carthaginians were not at par as far as their armed forces were concerned. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal as a competent leader and a cunning tactician as well as his eventual fall that became more and more inevitable as the war neared its decisive period. Soon, the entire north of Italy was declared insurgent, with both Gallic and Ligurian troops bolstering Hannibal’s army by an additional 40,000 men. Bibliography Primary Sources Secondary Sources He was little known among the Romans at the beginning of the war, and had he not marched across the Alps – one of the bravest and cunning acts in that war – he may not have been able to deal blow after blow to the Roman defense especially at the beginning. Third Punic War + Third Punic War … The world will remember Hannibal who displayed his ferocious attitude and war tactfulness and gave a very hard time to the mighty Romans that almost faced a grand defeat at the hand of the Carthaginians. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Top 14 Decisive Ancient Battles in History, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Match the dates of these major events in Roman history with the description of each event. During this period, most of the major battles of the Second Punic War were fought in Sicily or Spain. The Socii Hannibal rose to become a great leader of the Carthaginians that can be regarded as a huge spectacle of the war. Their support at the battle of Zama proved most pivotal to Roman success. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. To fight off Hannibal’s so far successful tactics on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy – they did not engage in open battle with the opponent, but dueled on repeated occasions using smaller detachments. They started by occupying the Roman colonies of Placentia and Cremona. The war was the stuff of legend among contemporary historians. Scullard say that unlike earlier periods of Rome, the history of the period of the First Punic War comes from annalists who had contact with actual eye-witnesses. 15 Things You Should Know About Hiroshima And Nagasaki, 14 Facts about W.EB. The City was a Greek colony allied to Rome, which sparks the beginning of the Second Punic war. This is the start of the Second Punic War. While this war was a lot shorter than the First Punic War, it is most well known for the Carthage leader Hannibal who caused massive damage to the Romans. This tribe consisted of Insubres and Boii people and formed an alliance with Carthaginians. A timeline of the second Punic War with a picture, latin sentence, and translation per event The Gallic population mainly constituted of the Boii and Insubres. Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome and ends the Roman Republic. All this tension culminated in a series of three wars fought between the two states from 264 BC to 146 BC. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifte… The Roman legions, now commanded by Scipio Africanus, made a second … Advancing into the territory of some of Rome's new Spanish allies near Acra Leuce they defeated the local tribal forces. Some 6,000 infantry who were able to escape from the battlefield were caught by the Numidians and then forced to lay their arms and surrender. Military genius that Hannibal was, he had to face an eventual fall that led to a massive loss for the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. Here is a list of the top 10 biggest events of the Second Punic War: At a time when Hannibal was marching unfathomable distances with his infantry, cavalry and war elephants, the Romans were also facing a stiff uprising among the Gallic tribes, further worsening the situation for them. Earlier, the Carthaginians had smartly captured a supply depot to serve as a diversion, luring the Romans into battle at the Trebia. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. Even though these tribes despised the Romans, they were never able to do much about it because of their limited power. From the Siege of Saguntum to the march through the Pyrenees and the Rhone and then the death-defying ascent and descent on the Alps, Hannibal’s crossing was one of the major achievements of the Second Punic War, and one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare. But unfortunately he failed and killed in action .if that army had reached Hannibal,s hands ,it would have changed the course of the war. See Second Punic War Battles. Were the ingenious strategist’s legendary victories also the reason for the downfall of this once incredible empire? Key Events and Timeline. A chance to pull together the key themes of the depth study, to allow students to engage with overarching general questions about the Second Punic War, similar to the style of essay questions that they will find in the examination. He soon decided on the most opportune time to pull off a surprise attack and started his army’s march across the Alps, which were sparsely populated at the time. Summary of the Work Plan: Causes of Wars Plan: Events in Greece Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal's … Hannibal’s cavalry broke through the smaller numbers of the enemy and then attacked the bulk of the Romans from the front and sides. The famous Roman general, Scipio Africanus, took a leaf out of Hannibal’s book to strengthen Roman intelligence. Until the decisive moment arrived, the outcome of the war hung in the balance throughout a number of battles. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. But this turned out to be a masterstroke. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘M… For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardiniaand, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Hannibal dealt a huge blow by decimating most of the Roman army with minimal loss to his side. Dude…. Historyly.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Ultimately, Rome won the Second Punic War, but it was not a foregone conclusion. Polybius even noted: “How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae than those which preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome’s allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman power.”. 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