Metaethics includes moral theories that contain assumptions which answer some metaphysical and epistemological questions about moral goods and values. The primary motivation for the pre-conventional level is to avoid punishment. The second stage, Stage 2, is “instrumental purpose and exchange.” In this stage, children’s actions are based on consideration for what others can do for them. Lawrence Kohlberg was an important figure is sociology and psychology. She holds a B.A. Gilligan concluded through a series of studies that males and females develop different standards of morality. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Ethical Theories Ethical theories are often broadly divided into three types: i) Consequentialist theories ii) Non-consequentialist theories iii) Agent-centered theories 7. "Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age." After World War II, he helped to smuggle Jewish refugees past the British blockage of Palestine and in 1969, he returned to Israel to study the morality of young people in its collective settlements. Allow time for group projects and activities to give students at different stages of development the opportunity to work together and to learn how their behavior affects others in a social context. Intelligence also has much to do with self-awareness and reflection, perspective-taking abilities, and critical thinking, which, in turn, play important roles in moral, cognitive, and other aspects of development. Stage 5 is the stage concerned with “morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law.” In this stage, individuals value the will of the majority and the well-being of society. In this stage, an act is considered wrong if it harms others or violates a rule or law (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376). Deontological Theories are duty based theories that share a similar general idea that there are universal moral rules in which some actions are always wrong, despite the consequences. 11th ed. Lawrence Kohlberg's theory claims that our development of moral reasoning happens in six stages: 1. Obedience and Punishment, 2. Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development. Test. Print. It has been recently found that moral judgment consists in concurrent evaluations of three different components that align with precepts from three dominant moral theories (virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism): the character of a person (Agent-component, A); their actions (Deed-component, D); and the consequences brought about in the situation (Consequences-component, C). While the parlance of everyday language suggests that a theory is just a hunch, it is important to understand that the word has a very different meaning in science. Moral theology, Christian theological discipline concerned with identifying and elucidating the principles that determine the quality of human behaviour in the light of Christian revelation. Further research has, however, found little support for Gilligan’s claims of a male bias in Kohlberg’s model (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 378). Kohlberg's research has been criticized by other researchers, most notably by Carol Gilligan, who noted that Kohlberg focused exclusively on male children in his studies of moral reasoning. Macionis, John J. "Lawrence Kohlberg". The levels are called preconventional morality, conventional morality, and postconventional morality. It may be that that trend will lead to the emergence of some broader, unifying, theory. Absent such tendencies, neither Piaget or Kohlberg would have formulated their theories to begin with. Because so few people attain Level 3, Kohlberg questioned the validity of this level, though he later proposed an additional seventh stage, which he described as the “cosmic” stage, in which individuals are able to consider the effect of their actions on the universe as a whole (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 377). Not everyone will reach the highest level of moral development. At this stage, people act according to their internalized standards of morality (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376). The three levels that Kohlberg described are Level 1: Pre-Conventional morality, Level 2: Conventional Morality, and Level 3: Post-Conventional morality. As shown earlier, one helpful way for leading an ethical case study discussion is to give students a guide, such as the “Seven Step Format for Ethical Decision Making” to help them think though the issues presented in a case. As before, understanding these broad positions is crucial to understanding and critiquing the specific metaethical theories outlined later in this chapter. Hier stellen wir fest, dass das Individuum alle moralische Verantwortung an eine Autorität delegiert. In this experiment, Kohlberg presented a story about a man named Heinz: Heinz’s wife was dying from a particular type of cancer. Diese Stufe von Kohlbergs Theorie der moralischen Entwicklung ist Teil der präkonventionellen Ebene. Write. If they move past stage 5 to stage 6, they will only obey moral norms if they agree with them, and ignore moral norms that they disagree with. The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget’s theory of moral reasoning. Gravity. Using your best critical thinking skills give the strengths and weaknesses of each position. His research has profoundly shifted the way we look at moral development. Positive Rights: impose a duty on others to provide for your needs to achieve your goals, not just protect your right to pursue them These other factors can include duties, obligations, rights, laws of nature, or social contracts. Moral theories allow us to see the implications of the judgments that these (and other fundamental concerns) are each important in moral reasoning. Answer: Understanding Kohlberg's theory of moral development can help you to understand your students, and help you to guide them in their moral development. THIS ASSIGNMENT IS APA FORMAT AND NO LESS THAN 300 WORDS. Upper. BOOKRAGS STAFF. Moral Foundations Theory was created by a group of social and cultural psychologists (see us here) to understand why morality varies so much across cultures yet still shows so many similarities and recurrent themes. 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