Bangladesh Government. Other than the Calcium Carbide following Chemicals are in common practice in artificially ripening of the fruits: Ethylene: A very small concentration of ethylene in air is sufficient to promote the fruit ripening process. If use ethylene gas, then the fruits will start to ripen. Justice, Editor. Furthermore, to address the socioeconomic and technical issues of artificial fruit ripening, the governments of developing countries can follow the examples set by the developed countries and may come up with standard fruit ripening techniques. CAS  From an economic point of view, as long as there is a high demand for seasonal fruits, or chances of loss of ripen fruits during storage and distribution, the producers and/or merchants will be inclined toward using artificial fruit ripening agents. Yang Y. 2027 strongly prohibits the use of carbide gas in fruit ripening [5, 16]. 2015;18(1):30–7. In humans, acetylene is not acutely toxic if it is below the permissible levels whereas if it exceeds the limits then its inhalation can cause unconsciousness and it may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia i.e. The concentrations of ethylene gas evolved from blue-flame oil stoves used in the "sweating" process were not proper to produce actual npenmg. The naturally ripened fruits are not uniformly coloured; rather, they are patchy. However, because of the potential health hazards related to the ripening agents, artificial fruit ripening process is highly debatable throughout the world. A Report Regarding a Proposed Amendment of Certain Sections of the Bangladesh Pure Food Ordinance, 1959 (Ordinance No. In general, there are no specific regulations for fruit and fruit-related products; however, a notable exception is the Fruit Marketing Act (No. According to this law, production or distribution of food or food additives containing contaminants and heavy metals above the safety standard limit is punishable by a fine of RMB 10,000–100,000, and/or revoking of license depending on the extent of the offense [54]. Islam R. Economic integration in South Asia: charting a legal roadmap. 2011;3(1):61–4. 2009, Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division. Among the 53 countries, only 34 have defined food standards, inspection mechanism, and laboratory support system. FAO, IFOAM, UNCTD. Faridpur Med Coll J. Nations, Editor. It may contain traces of heavy metals which can make fruits harmful for human consumption. 2012;10(2):247–51. 1.3 Artificial Ripening Agents As ethylene is the main natural ripening agent, artificial ripening agents are used to produce ethylene. Using the chemical compound calcium carbide (CaC) for artificially ripening fruits brought in from other States is so commonplace that, vendors say, you can hardly find a fruit free from it. volume 5, Article number: 8 (2016) Developing countries such as India, Bangladesh, and other South Asian countries have sufficient legal framework to control artificial fruit ripening. The role of ethylene in fruit ripening. 1987). The biochemistry of plants. J Med. In Bangladesh, government ministries and agencies responsible for the inspection, examination, and control of ripening, harvesting, and marketing activities of fresh fruit include [44]: Ministry of Agriculture—plant protection wing, Customs—inspection of imported fruits and vegetables, Ministry of Health—sample collection and testing. However, a chemical known as Calcium Carbide (CaC2) is most commonly used for artificial ripening of fruits. The ABP Publications; 2011. http://www.telegraphindia.com. It is obvious that the practice of using calcium carbide is an unnatural practice, and when the Government is disapproving, the fruit traders cannot proceed with this unhealthy practice. Agric & Food Secur 5, 8 (2016). Goonatilake R. Effects of diluted ethylene glycol as a fruit-ripening agent. In: Pua EC, Davey MR, editors. Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules. Other developing countries can also take similar initiatives to modernize fruit ripening processes on a commercial scale. Formal recommendation by the National organic Standard Board (NOSB) to the National Organic Program (NOP). Barcelona-Spain; 2007. The most commonly used chemical is called ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid). Role of health hazardous ethephon in nutritive values of selected pineapple, banana and tomato. CaC 2 is commonly used as a ripening agent in tropical fruit. Fruit ripening phenomena—an overview. Artificial ripening of fruits by acetylene gas, commonly known as carbide gas is prohibited as per the provisions in the sub-regulation 2.3.5 of the Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restrictions on Sales) Regulation, 2011. In acidic drinks like sodas and fruit juices, sodium benzoate is an antimicrobial preservative and flavoring agent that can inhibit the growth of bacteria, mold and yeast. Whereas in the case of artificial ripening, fruit ripening agents promote ripening and … Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restrictions on Sales) Regulations. When a fruit is ripe and ready for consumption, a variety of visual, chemical, and textural cues then advertise the availability of calories to a bird or mammal. But many petitions have been filed to ban these chemicals too due to the indiscriminate use by the traders and the farmers as they lack the knowledge of their proper use. Over time, of course, they become softer and sweeter. In Bangladesh, the laws and acts on fruit ripening and marketing include Bangladesh Pure Food Ordinance (Amendment) Act 2005 that originated from the Bangladesh Pure Food Ordinance, 1959, Agricultural products Market Act 1950 (revised in 1985), Agents such as calcium carbide, ethephon, and ethylene have been reported to be used as artificial ripening agents. Food Act 1983. In: Australian Printer. ( 4), that he had any knowledge of the use of ethylene as an agent for ripening fruits. These codes are as follows [69]: Code of hygienic practice for canned fruit and vegetable products, Code of hygienic practice for dried fruits, Code of hygienic practice for dehydrated fruits and vegetables including edible fungi, Code of practice for the packaging and transport of fresh fruit and vegetables. 2007;47(1):1–19. Beware of these fruits, in The Telegraph Calcutta India. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The 2013 European Union report on pesticide residues in food 2015, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As artificial fruit ripening using calcium carbide poses greater threat to human health, most of the SAARC countries have banned the use of calcium carbide as an artificial fruit ripening agent [5, 11, 13, 16, 33]. In: Seymour GB, Taylor JE, Tucker GA, editors. Taha M. Qatar food and agricultural import regulations and standards—narrative. 2011, Soil Association. Le HP. Mohidus Samad Khan. Food safety and health security should be top concerns of any Government for its citizens. Google ScholarÂ. Africa FWRCoFSf. For mass production, ethylene ripening chambers can serve as a promising option. Calcium carbide is alkaline in nature and irritates the mucosal tissue in the abdominal region; cases of stomach disorder after eating carbide-ripened mangoes have also been reported [5]. Control, Editor. 55 of 1966), Zimbabwe. Other effects include numbness in the legs and hands, general weakness, cold and damp skin and low blood pressure. Africa FWCCF. The fruit traders and sellers should be made aware of the health hazards and imbued with a sense of moral responsibility to the society. It is currently being used by wholesalers and retailers in the Philippines at 8–10 g CaC 2 per kg of mango fruit. Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants. 15 (1999), The We know from experience that a clear brand and effective communications can help power an organization’s success. In spite of having strict laws and acts, the inclination toward the use artificial ripening agents is dominant among farmers and the vendors. Externally applied Ethylene is likely to trigger or initiate the natural ripening process of apple, avocado, banana, mango, papaya, pineapple and guava, and therefore, can be sold before the predicted time. No unified policy on fruit cultivation, preservation, and distribution exists within these countries. In: XVII IMEKO World Congress. Article  Article  In India, artificial ripening is banned under the Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act, 1954, and the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955. Affairs, Editor. Mycotoxin and food safety in developing countries. MNI carried out a major part of the literature review and drafted the manuscript. Hakim MA, et al. Different fruit ripening agents can be used to ripen fruits artificially and to provide fruits the desired color and taste within a short time. 2007, Law Commission of Bangladesh, GoB: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In: The Independent 2014, Independent Publications Limited. This implies that SON follows the permissible list of fruit additives by Codex Alimentarius Commission and the list of codes on fresh and processed fruits. Brady CJ. The standard no. The concerned authorities have failed to carve out any effective action plan to check the malpractices in ripening. And for that, all that a trader has to do is to wrap a small quantity of Calcium Carbide in a packet of paper and keep this packet near a pile or box of fruits. 2010;99(12):1664–8. Made by humans, especially in imitation of something natural: an artificial sweetener that replaces sugar; artificial flowers. Google ScholarÂ. Islamabad, Pakistan: Consumer Rights Commission of Pakistan; 1999. Indian J Nat Prod Resour. (FSSAI), Editor. GSO 2401:2014 under GSO Food Standard Act implies that pineapple belonging to the Bromeliaceae family should be supplied fresh to the consumers upon preparation and packaging [59]. Berlin: Springer; 2010. Additionally, ethylene is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance (maximum residue level) when used as a growth regulator on fruits and vegetables [71]. Khan MS, Hafeez A. Various regulatory agencies have launched various programs, acts and laws for monitoring and avoiding such unhealthy ways. In addition, selling unsafe food is punishable under Sects. 50 and 59 of Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 [35]. In nature, fruits ripen after attainment of proper maturity by a sequence of complex physical and biochemical events. The prime objective of this article is to report and discuss the legal status of artificial fruit ripening around the world: developed and developing countries. Akanya JN. Agriculture Wing, Editor. New Delhi:Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2011. Vigilance at the wholesale markets should be strengthened to stop the practice. Catalogue of East African Standards, E.A.C. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) under the regulation (EC) No 396/2005 developed the Standard Sample Description (SSD), which is a standardized model for the reporting of harmonized data on analytical measurements of chemical substances present in food, feed, and water [72]. Provisions for artificial ripening of fruits under Food Safety and Standards Regulations 2011. Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are the eight nations that together share the coast of Persian Gulf. FACTS, Ethylene. Chemicals like calcium carbide / ethephon and oxytocin are reportedly being used in fruit and vegetable mandis / farms for artificial ripening of fruits and for increasing the size of fruits and vegetables respectively. Fruits ripened with ethrel have more acceptability and more shelf- life … The food laws in Pakistan are similar to those in Bangladesh. Because of the presence of impurities such as arsenic and phosphorus found in industrial grade calcium carbide, workers applying calcium carbide on fruits are likely to encounter serious health threats—dizziness, frequent thirst, irritation in mouth and nose, weakness, permanent skin damage difficulty in swallowing, vomiting, skin ulcer, and so forth [5]. Eating artificially ripened mangoes causes stomach upset because the alkaline substance is an irritant that erodes the mucosal tissue in the stomach and disrupts intestinal function. On the other hand, in the presence of moisture and at neutral pH, ethephon is decomposed into ethylene gas, biphosphate ion, and chloride ion [31]. Bouzayen M, et al. As an attempt to make significant reforms of the Common Market Organization (CMO) for certain agricultural products, the European Union extended its approach to the promotion, quality, and marketing standards for fresh and processed fruit and vegetables. Not have specific laws to regulate the hazardous ripening agents are allowed to be used to artificially fruits! Of proper maturity by a sequence of complex physical and biochemical events Commission of Bangladesh, the of... Over time, of course, they become softer and sweeter to our terms and Conditions, California Statement. 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