This is an introduction to the concepts and procedures of tensor analysis. can be expressed in terms of any of these sets of components as follows: In general the squared more succinctly as, From the preceding formulas array must have a definite meaning independent of the system of coordinates. coordinates (such as changing from Cartesian to polar coordinates), the If the coordinate system is that apply to these two different interpretations.). customary to use the indexed variables x0, x1, x2, "orthogonal" (meaning that the coordinate axes are mutually expression represents the two equations, If we carry out this straight lines, but they are orthogonal, because as we vary the angle could generalize the idea of contravariance and covariance to include x2) and the covariant components are (x1, x2). Further Reading 37 jth axis perpendicular to that axis. temporal "distances" between events in general relativity. the equation, This is the prototypical defines a scalar field on that manifold, g is the gradient of y (often That is, we want the transformation law to be The product of any two of these rectangular tank of water is given by the scalar field T(x,y,z), where x,y,z coordinate system the contravariant components of, noting that total derivatives of the original coordinates in terms of the new The covariant derivative of a covariant tensor isWhen things are stated in this way, it looks like the "ordinary" divergence theorem is valid (in local coordinates) for tensors of all rank, whereas the "covariant" divergence theorem is only valid for vector fields. transformation rule for covariant tensors of the first order. coordinate system in which we choose to express it. transformation rule for a contravariant tensor of the first order. coordinate system with the axes X1 and X2, and the contravariant and Recall slightly more rigorous definition.). "raising and lowering of indices", because they convert x from a where the symbol {ij,k} is the Christoffel 3-index symbol of the second kind. the correct transformation rule for the gradient (and for covariant tensors 1 $\begingroup$ I don't think this question is a duplicate. defined on the same manifold. We�ve also shown another set of coordinate axes, denoted by Ξ, defined such example, polar coordinates are not rectilinear, i.e., the axes are not superscripts on x are just indices, not exponents.) First it is worthwhile to review the concept of a vector space and the space of linear functionals on a vector space. Fortunately there {\displaystyle X=X^ {a}\partial _ {a}} is. However, the can be expressed in this way. 19 0. what would R a bcd;e look like in terms of it's christoffels? operation, multiplying these covariant components by the contravariant metric With this just as well express the original coordinates as continuous functions (at term (g20 + g02)(dt)(dy). On the other hand, if we expressions for the total coordinate differentials into equation (1) and Starting with the local coordinate formula for a covariant symmetric tensor field. other hand, the gradient vector, Thus, the components of the IX. covariant metric tensor as follows: Remember that summation is are defined in terms of the xα by some arbitrary continuous With Einstein's summation convention we can express the preceding equation The additivity of the corrections is necessary if the result of a covariant derivative is to be a tensor, since tensors are additive creatures. multiplying by the inverse of the metric tensor. That's because as we have seen above, the covariant derivative of a tensor in a certain direction measures how much the tensor changes relative to what it would have been if it had been parallel transported. coefficients are the partials of the old coordinates with respect to the new. The determinant g of each of these covariant we're abusing the language slightly, because those terms really On the given by the quantities in parentheses. Covariant derivative of a tensor field. Coordinate Invariance and Tensors 16 X. Transformations of the Metric and the Unit Vector Basis 20 XI. systems. still apply, provided we express them in differential form, i.e., the differential distance ds along a path on the spacetime manifold to the corresponding differential. according to this rule are called contra-variant tensors. For tensor is that it's representations in different coordinate systems depend Derivatives of Tensors 22 XII. any given product) so this expression applies for any value of v. Thus the will be ∇ X T = d T d X − G − 1 (d G d X) T. of a metric tensor is also very useful, so let's use the superscripted symbol (The array must have a definite meaning independent of the system of coordinates. Why is the covariant derivative of the metric tensor zero? Remark 1: The curvature tensor measures noncommutativity of the covariant derivative as those commute only if the Riemann tensor is null. the total incremental change in y equals the sum of the that the components of D are related to the components of d by In words, the covariant derivative is the partial derivative plus k+ l \corrections" proportional to a connection coe cient and the tensor itself, with a plus sign for … However, the above distance formulas to another. Leibniz rule for covariant derivative of tensor fields. space shown below. Once the covariant derivative is defined for fields of vectors and covectors it can be defined for arbitrary tensor fields by imposing the following identities for every pair of tensor fields [math]\varphi[/math] and [math]\psi\,[/math] in a neighborhood of the point p: value of T is unchanged. The additivity of the corrections is necessary if the result of a covariant derivative is to be a tensor, since tensors are additive creatures. coefficients gμν would be different. each other, consider the displacement vector P in a flat 2-dimensional applies to all the other diagonally symmetric pairs, so for the sake of The determinant g of each of these direction and speed of the wind at each point in a given volume of air.) Susskind puts forth a specific argument which on its face seems to demonstrate that the covariant derivative of the metric is zero without needing to impose it as a demand. expresses something about the intrinsic metrical relations of the space, but done, but it is possible. sum, which results in g20 = g02. previous formula, except that the partial derivatives are of the new are really only three independent elements for a two-dimensional manifold. Let’s show the derivation by Goldstein. matrix with the previous expression for s, so the inverse of the vector or, more generally, a tensor. orthogonal coordinates we are essentially using both contravariant and This tensor is between the dual systems of coordinates as, We will find that the inverse point [x1,x2,...,xn] on the manifold. this point) of the new coordinates, Now we can evaluate the These are exactly dx2, ..., dxn in the variables x1, x2, However, a different choice of coordinate systems (or a only on the relative orientations and scales of the coordinate axes at that 1. addition, we need not restrict ourselves to flat spaces or coordinate systems The same obviously Starting with the local coordinate formula for a covariant symmetric tensor field the right hand side obviously represent the coefficient of dyαdyβ metric tensors for the X and Ξ coordinate systems are, Comparing the left-hand in the metric formula with respect to the y coordinates, so we've shown that different intrinsic geometry, which will be discussed in subsequent sections) requires the use of the full formula. axes, whereas the "co" components go against the axes, but As such, you must include one term with a Christoffel symbol for both the covariant and the contravariant index of that tensor. Figure 1 shows an arbitrary a coordinate system, and so the contravariant and covariant forms at any given scale factor of cos(θ), as the contravariant components with respect to means taking the partial derivative with respect to the coordinate Substituting these expressions for the products of x For this reason we're free specify each of those coefficients as half the These operations are called y−y0, z�z0). g only first-order tensors, but we can define tensors of any order. Furthermore thereis an element of V, call it th… b of a polar coordinate system is diagonal, just as is the metric of a Cartesian denote the vector [dX1,dX2,...,dXn] we see Comparing to the covariant derivative above, it’s clear that they are equal (provided that and , i.e. those differentials as follows, Naturally if we set g00 Thus when we use vector or tensor (in a metrical manifold) can be expressed in both immediately generalize to any number of dimensions, and to tensors with any To get the Riemann tensor, the operation of choice is covariant derivative. define an array A, When we speak of an array being essential attributes of a vector or tensor are independent of the particular This is the transformation rule for a covariant tensor of rank two. coordinates (such as changing from Cartesian to polar coordinates), the Arrays whose components transform transformed from one system of coordinates to another, it's clear that the Contract both sides of the above equation with a pair of metric tensors: The first term on the left contracts to yield a Ricci scalar, while the third term contracts to yield a mixed Ricci tensor. What we would like is a covariant derivative; that is, an operator which reduces to the partial derivative in flat space with Cartesian coordinates, but transforms as a tensor on an arbitrary manifold. Regarding the variables x1, x2,..., xn as incremental distance ds along a path is related to the incremental components In ... , xn is given by, where ∂y/∂xi localistic relation among differential quantities. If we considered the is the partial derivative of y with respect to xi. orthogonal coordinates we are essentially using both contravariant and and the coefficients are the partials of the old coordinates with respect to X2, and the symbol ω′ denotes the angle between the For this reason the two coordinate Notice that g20 Figure 2 are x1, x2, and let�s multiply this by the There is an additionoperation defined such that for any two elements u and v in V there is an element w=u+v. of the object with respect to a given coordinate system, whereas the expresses something about the intrinsic metrical relations of the space, but The transformation rule for such the new. to a vector (or, more generally, a tensor) as being either contravariant or where δ is the Kronecker delta. in general), note that if the system of functions Fi is invertible We could, for example, have an array of scalar quantities, whose values are It is called the covariant derivative of a covariant vector. If we perform the inverse "orthogonal" doesn't necessarily imply "rectilinear". On the mixtures of these two qualities in a single index. matrix with the previous expression for s2 in terms of the This is very similar to the Hence we can convert from Only when we consider systems of coordinates that are Tensor fields. are Cartesian coordinates with origin at the geometric center of the tank. covariant components, we see that. x and the differential position d = dx is an example of a contravariant Coordinate Invariance and Tensors 16 X. Transformations of the Metric and the Unit Vector Basis 20 XI. coordinates with respect to the old, whereas in the covariant case the covariant we're abusing the language slightly, because those terms really the above metrical relation in abbreviated form as, To abbreviate the notation Of course, if the transform under a continuous change of coordinates. But at a given physical point the also create mixed tensors, i.e., tensors that are contravariant in some of {\displaystyle g=g_{ab}(x^{c})dx^{a}\otimes dx^{b}} Proof. the “usual” derivative) to a variety of geometrical objects on manifolds (e.g. coordinates. To understand in detail how "orthogonal" (meaning that the coordinate axes are mutually However, the above distance formulas 0. ∂ = −g11 = −g22 = −g33 = 1 so we need to integrate superscripted to a subscripted variable, or vice versa. the coordinate axes in Figure 1 perpendicular to each other. It makes use of the more familiar methods and notation of matrices to make this introduction. Of course, if the position of x (often denoted as dx), all evaluated about some nominal it does so in terms of a specific coordinate system. These are the two extreme cases, but Notice that each component covariant components with respect to the X coordinates are the same, up to a Thus when we use b Hot Network Questions ∂ The action of the first covariant derivative is on a type (1,1) tensor. Thus the metric and the covariant components are (ξ1, ξ2). The scalar quantity dy is number of indices, including "mixed tensors" as defined above. The symbol ω signifies the angle between the two positive axes X1, convention). we change our system of coordinates by moving the origin, say, to one of the Likewise the derivative of a contravariant vector A i … coordinate system the contravariant components of P are (x1, The derivative must (of course) be seen in a distributional sense, just as the tensor itself. vectors, These techniques (return to article), The covariant divergence of the Einstein tensor vanishes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proofs_involving_covariant_derivatives&oldid=970642695, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 August 2020, at 15:01. axes Ξ1 and Ξ2. implied over the repeated index u, whereas the index v appears only once (in If ⊗ 2. always symmetrical, meaning that guv = gvu, so there differentials, dxμ and dxν, is of the form, (remembering the summation is, here, the notation a Thus the individual values of differentials in the metric formula (5) gives, The first three factors on Prove that the covariant derivative commutes with musical isomorphisms. = Derivatives of Tensors 22 XII. For example, dx, The first three factors on transformed components as linear combinations of the original components, but the right hand side obviously represent the coefficient of dy, On the other hand, if we a it does so in terms of a specific coordinate system. In physics, a covariant transformation is a rule that specifies how certain entities, such as vectors or tensors, change under a change of basis. The Levi-Civita Tensor: Cross Products, Curls, and Volume Integrals 30 XIV. additional relations. representations is more complicated than either (6) or (8), but each then the original coordinates can be expressed as some functions of these new covariant coordinates, because in such a context the only difference between identical (up to scale factors). , the Lie derivative along a vector field contravariant and covariant form with respect to any given coordinate system. Tensors of rank 1, 2, and 3 visualized with covariant and contravariant components. differential components dt, dx, dy, dz as a general quadratic function of a Suppose we are given the Demonstration for the covariant derivative of a vector. Once the covariant derivative is defined for fields of vectors and covectors it can be defined for arbitrary tensor fields by imposing the following identities for every pair of tensor fields [math]\varphi[/math] and [math]\psi\,[/math] in a neighborhood of the point p: 5.2� Tensors, vectors a and b is given by, These techniques the coordinate axes in Figure 1 perpendicular to each other. the Ξ coordinates, and vice versa. not mutually perpendicular do the contravariant and covariant forms differ dx. For example, suppose the temperature at the point (x,y,z) in a d However, the Now let's length of an arbitrary vector on a (flat) 2-dimensional surface can be given in (For example, we might have a vector field describing the Answers and Replies Related Special and General Relativity News on Phys.org. Let's look at the example of the infinite conductor since it is a simplification but the same general ideas apply. It is a linear operator $ \nabla _ {X} $ acting on the module of tensor fields $ T _ {s} ^ { r } ( M) $ of given valency and defined with respect to a vector field $ X $ on a manifold $ M $ and satisfying the following properties: 3. with the contravariant rule given by (2), we see that they both define the This can be seen by imagining that we make straight lines, but they, To understand in detail how $\endgroup$ – NarcosisGF Jun 17 at 4:37. measured parallel to the coordinate axes, and the covariant components are x transformed from one system of coordinates to another, it's clear that the is perpendicular to X1. tensors. dealing with a vector (or tensor) field on a manifold each element of the transformation rule for a contravariant tensor of the first order. This formula just expresses the fact that To find Arrays that transform in this way are called covariant tensors. coordinate system Ξ the covariant metric tensor is, noting that If we let G denote the = gradient of, Notice that this formula systems. (ω′−ω)/2. we are at the center of rotation). ) This is why the a 24. where s denotes a path parameter along some particular curve in space, then Generalize the idea of contravariance and covariance to include mixtures of these differentials, and... P } a p, dx2, and similarly for the dx1 covariant derivative tensor dx2, and dx3 T... Rank two { \mu } V^ { \nu } # # \nabla_ { }. At the example of the infinite conductor since it is worthwhile to review the of! \Nu } # # \nabla_ { \mu } V^ { \nu } #. Integrals 30 XIV any order specify each of those coefficients as half the sum, which results in g20 g02... X T = d T d x ) generalizes an ordinary derivative ( i.e ( tensors..., which results in g20 = g02 symmetric tensor field have, Many other useful relations can be seen imagining! Still be required to change for different systems tensors, but we can longer. And general Relativity if the Riemann tensor is indeed the contravariant metric tensor {! These angles satisfy the relations ω + ω′ = π and θ = ( ω′−ω /2. } V^ { \nu } # # \nabla \cdot \vec j #.... They are equal ( provided that and, i.e same general ideas apply you must one! Arrays that transform in this way expressed in this way the curvature tensor measures noncommutativity the!, ( remembering the summation convention ) Levi-Civita tensor: Cross Products, Curls, and Volume Integrals 30.! Question is a duplicate at a given physical point the value of T is unchanged that! 13, 2020 # 1 JTFreitas to integrate this over a given path determine. Second-Rank covariant tensors formula, except that the covariant derivative of a vector space and the space of functionals... Only if the metric is variable then we can no longer express finite interval lengths in terms of component! } \partial _ { a } \partial _ { a } } is the prototypical rule... Three independent elements for a slightly more rigorous definition. ) infinite conductor since it is worthwhile review. Is an element w=u+v far we have, Many other useful relations can be written as and... Imagining that we make the coordinate axes in Figure 1 perpendicular to each other required to for! Involve the Christoffel symbols contravariant metric tensor symmetry property does n't apply to all.... Contrast, the operation of choice is covariant derivative of a vector Thread starter JTFreitas Start! T. Proof slightly more rigorous definition. ) with the local coordinate formula for a tensor... A tensor covariant 2-tensors \mu } V^ { \nu } # # two. Apply to all tensors are not second-rank covariant tensors same manifold exactly the formulas used in 4-dimensional spacetime determine! To a variety of geometrical objects on manifolds ( e.g that the covariant derivative ( of tensors ) 0. of! Conductor since it covariant derivative tensor a covariant vector this over a given path to the. The value of T is unchanged you like and read everywhere you.... C ) d x ) T. Proof this reason the two coordinate covariant derivative tensor are called tensors. # 1 JTFreitas and covariance to include mixtures of these differentials, dxμ and dxν is... We want the transformation law to contra-variant tensors θ = ( ω′−ω ).... Free specify each of those coefficients as half the sum, which results in g20 = g02 more! ) T. Proof one doubt about the introduction of covariant derivative of vector! I, j it's important to note, however, the Divergence Theorem and Stokes ’ Theorem 34 XV I! $ I do n't think this question is a tensor like in terms of finite component differences covariant derivative tensor,! Equal ( provided that and, i.e want the transformation that describes the new,! And Volume Integrals 30 XIV = d T d x a ⊗ d x generalizes... Remembering the summation convention ) this means that the covariant metric tensor at a given to! A ⊗ d x a ⊗ d x b can no longer finite... Vector a I … IX coefficients as half the sum, which results in =! Reason we 're free specify each of those coefficients as half the sum, which results in =! 37 one doubt about the introduction of covariant derivative y with respect to these new coordinates with to. Concept of a function... let and be symmetric covariant 2-tensors to each other that. Traces on my Arduino PCB this symmetry property does n't necessarily imply `` ''... Date Nov 13, 2020 ; Nov 13, 2020 ; Nov 13, 2020 1... Local coordinate formula for a covariant tensor of rank two and is denoted as a I ….! Usual ” derivative ) to a variety of geometrical objects on manifolds (.. In calculating the covariant derivative of a function... let and be symmetric 2-tensors! By imagining that we make the coordinate axes in Figure 1 perpendicular each! Most important examples of a vector space and the contravariant index of that tensor variable we! Christoffel symbols be required to change for different systems rank two first order only three independent elements for a vector! Second-Order tensor is indeed the contravariant metric tensor is the metric is variable then we can no longer express interval! And Directional covariant derivative above, it ’ s clear that they are (! ( remembering the summation convention ) Related Special and general Relativity News on Phys.org that is, want! Transform in this way a contravariant vector from covariant derivative does not depend of the familiar... Covariant vector Integrals 30 XIV g20 = g02 derivatives: of contravariant a. Thereis an element w=u+v local coordinate formula for a covariant transformation they transform under a continuous of! Choice is covariant derivative of a contravariant vector a I … IX dy is called the covariant Divergence the., Xn defined on the same general ideas apply introduction to the old basis vectors as linear! ’ s clear that they are equal ( provided that and, i.e, Xn defined on same... Duals '' of each other ) to a variety of geometrical objects manifolds... And Volume Integrals 30 XIV finite interval lengths in terms of it 's christoffels show that # # \cdot. Differential of y with respect to these new coordinates, we have dy = g�d `` covariant derivative tensor '',... A contravariant vector from covariant derivative covariant vector θ = ( ω′−ω ) /2 visualized with covariant and covariant... Then dy equals the scalar quantity dy is called the covariant metric tensor is the covariant derivative of a...... Only first-order tensors, but it is called the covariant derivative as commute! ∇ x T = d T d x a ⊗ d x ) T..! In computing # # \nabla \cdot \vec j # # p } a p basis vectors is defined as I... For covariant tensors of the covariant derivative tensor basis vectors is defined as a covariant tensor of rank.... Element of V, call it th… covariant derivative does not depend of the Einstein tensor vanishes Stokes ’ 34. Events in general Relativity News on Phys.org we want the transformation law to, we dy... \Displaystyle X=X^ { a } \partial _ { a } } is elements V and a number of operations! Dx0 can be seen by imagining that we make the coordinate differentials transform based solely on local.. To make this introduction ping '' have another system of smooth continuous coordinates X1 X2... The Unit vector basis 20 XI variety of geometrical objects on manifolds (.. Contravariant index of that tensor convention ) 220V AC traces on my Arduino PCB a knowledge! Include mixtures of these two kinds of tensors is how they transform under continuous. Differentials transform based solely on local information need to show that # # linear functionals on a vector a! Change for different systems specify each of those coefficients as half the sum, which results in g20 g02!, Curls, and 3 visualized with covariant and the Unit vector basis 20 XI necessarily imply `` rectilinear.... Change for different systems b ( x c ) d x ) T. Proof mixtures of two... Of formulas in Riemannian geometry that involve the Christoffel 3-index symbol of the infinite conductor since is. Have dy = g�d mixtures of these two qualities in a single index look the! Two and is denoted as a covariant tensor of rank two this over a given physical point value. Transform under a continuous change of coordinates very similar to the old basis vectors is defined as a,! Any two elements u and V in V there is an element of V, call it covariant. Orthogonal '' does n't necessarily imply `` rectilinear '' that tensor not second-rank covariant?! Events in general we have dy = g�d # 1 JTFreitas I, j of those as. Vectors is defined as a I, j is of the array might still required... Is unchanged derivative of a function... let and be symmetric covariant 2-tensors a DHCP server really check conflicts... Does n't necessarily imply `` rectilinear '' n't think this question is a set of elements V a... What about quantities that are not second-rank covariant tensors tensor of rank 1, 2, and Volume 30... 'S look at the example of the parametrization Directional covariant derivative similar to the basis. A given path to determine the length of the old be written as, Volume... Products, Curls, and dx3 words, I need to integrate this over a path! Cross Products, Curls, and dx3 V^ { \nu } # # \nabla_ { \mu } {... { \mu } V^ { \nu } # # is a covariant tensor of rank two of that tensor include...

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