Perinatal and maternal health in Poland has significantly improved since women began advocating for respectful care. Infant mortality has dropped from 1 in 66 in 1990, to 1 in 222 in 2013. Poland itself was an early supporter of women’s suffrage. Less than three weeks later, on Nov. 28, the new Polish government granted to women the right to vote. Poland and Texas have comparable populations, conservative governments and stringent anti-abortion policies. Gisela Notz, “Clara Zetkin und die internationale sozialistische Frauenbewegung,” in Clara Zetkin in ihrer Zeit: Neue Fakten, Erkenntnisse, Wertungen (Berlin: Karl … In explaining the long silence about the crucial role these women played, she devotes considerable time to the centuries-old “Matka Polska” (Mother Poland) role attributed to women to preserve the language and the culture during the dozen or more invasions by Russia over several centuries. Indeed, in its The prestige and the influence of the Polish Church is closely linked to its historical presence and activity during the long period when Poland was occupied by foreign countries (throughout the 19th century) and under communist rule. This is the Final Research Report on Poland in the Religion, Politics and Gender Equality Project. Network of East-West Women, Poland. The Communist Women’s Movement prefigured the leading role of women in movements for social progress both today and tomorrow. Gender Equity and the Role of Women in Poland. Poland, like the rest of the Soviet alliance in Eastern Europe, offered women more opportunities for higher education and employment, than did most West European countries. But they differ significantly in how health care is delivered for women … It also happens that the role of the “head of the family” is fulfilled by the woman. The contribution of women to the 1848-1849 events in the Polish lands has not attracted much attention of historians, due probably to the paucity of women's studies in Poland. Polish women today face disproportionate levels of unemployment and are pushed into the informal economy due to outmoded perceptions of women’s roles. In the last years Polish people stray away from regular role division. After 123 years of foreign domination, Poland regained its independence on Nov. 11, 1918. Although women are receiving more breastfeeding support after birth, national rates still remain low. American Association of University Women. In 1920 AAUW's predecessor, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, helped raise $100,000 for Polish scientist Marie Curie to purchase a gram of radium. A common conviction exists, that the marriage should rely on partnership, and the man and woman should make decisions together in important issues. Penn’s book fills in the gaps. 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