F ossil energy released when coal, oil and natural gas are transformed into their oxidised state—carbon dioxide (CO 2)—has driven mobility, electrification, industry and innovation—the bricks of the modern economy. Venice is sinking at a rate of 0.08 inches every year. The main cause is the demand for wood fuel. Come to think of it, between 1983 and 1993 alone, Nigeria lost 20% of its forest and woodland areas. Climate change is increasingly becoming a serious challenge to Nigeria's socioeconomic development. Fishery resources are known to be highly sensitive to marine environmental changes. Available reports indicate that the average temperature of the earth has increased by 0.74 degrees Celsius over the past 100 years. In 2009, a UK Department for … In Nigeria, though the impact of climate change is already significant the long run impact will be disastrous if nothing is done now to build up the country’s resilience against the threat posed by climate change. Total Emissions in 2018 = 6,677 Million Metric Tons of CO 2 equivalent.Percentages may not add up to 100% due to independent rounding. All Rights Reserved. Variations in rainfall pattern will affect crop production in varying ways depending on the location. However, the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) affirms that human activity is the main cause of the changes seen in climate. Impact as used may be negative or positive or a combination. Climate Change and Fishery in Nigeria: Fish farming and the associated processes are becoming an important source of revenue and employment in Nigeria. Desertification, in which fertile land becomes barren desert, now affects as much as 60% of Nigeria’s land, exacerbated by drought and climate change. Indeed, climate change is not only a challenge to agriculture development (food security) in Nigeria, but to the country’s general development and livelihood sustenance of the entire Nigerian citizenry. Climate change is a major challenge facing the world today. Climate Change and Health of the People: A healthy nation they say is wealthy nation. Human activity is changing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in three important ways, namely; Burning fossil fuels: When fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas burn they release greenhouse gases. Desertification, in which fertile land becomes barren desert, now affects as much as 60% of Nigeria’s land, exacerbated by drought and climate change. The effects of climate change are projected to manifest through changes in land and water resources, specifically, changes in the frequency and intensity of droughts, flooding, water shortages, worsening of droughts, worsening soil conditions, desertification, disease and pest outbreaks on crops and livestock. Another factor … The causes of the current wave of climate change hinge mainly on anthropogenic factors, which result to increase in the accumulation of heat-trapping “greenhouse” gases in the atmosphere. In Nigeria, there were an estimated 137,600 diarrhoeal deaths in children under 15 years old in the baseline period of 2008. Although depending on location, regions experience climate change with significant higher temperatures during the dry seasons while rainfalls during rainy seasons help The REMP is to be implemented in a manner that takes into consideration of the country’s sustainable development objectives as articulated in its national development policy documents known as ‘Nigeria Vision 20:2020’ and the National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action on Climate Change for Nigeria, NASPA-CCN . The first factor aggravating flooding is climate change, which has been shown to contribute to more extreme storms and rainfall. 2. The South-South geopolitical zone is mainly affected by sea level rise and deforestation-induced changes; the Southwest zone also is affected by sea level rise and deforestation-induced changes; Southeast by erosion, flooding and land degradation; North-central by changes due to de-vegetation and overgrazing; Northeast by drought, desertification and heat stress; and Northwest also by drought an, desertification and heat stress. It includes shifts in the frequency and magnitude of sporadic weather events as well as the slow continuous rise in global mean surface temperature. Climate change, in particular, is currently one of the most critical issues facing mankind today. Instability in Nigeria, however, has been growing steadily over the last decade - and one reason is climate change. Climate change in Nigeria is evident from temperature increase, rainfall variability, drought, desertification, rising sea levels, erosions, floods, thunderstorms, lightings, bush fires, landslides, land degradation, and loss of biodiversity. It is hot and wet most of the year in the southeast but dry in the southwest and farther inland. Here’s How Climate Change Is Making It Worse. Source: Human dynamics of climate change, technical report, Met Office, HM Government, UK, 2014. Mean annual and monthly temperature and rainfall data were collected from the … 5. In Nigeria the effects of climate change is expected not to stop at just effecting the crops and plants (i.e. Millions more have been displaced, with many joining the flow of migrants to southern Europe. The U.N. says the scale of climate change,… Archive But the problem of climate security isn’t limited to a corner of Africa; current estimates suggest that anywhere from 25 million to 1 billion people will be forced to migrate because of the changing climate by 2050. 1. billed to discuss the causes of climate and environmental changes and the need for environmental-friendly education policy in Nigeria through the following sub-headings. It will also affect the revenue sustenance of those who work or trade on fishery resources. The competition for usable land will only get more intense. CLIMATE change is a worldwide phenomenon but a second look at the topic suggests that Nigeria may be immune from it. The mean annual variability and trend of rainfall over Nigeria in the last six decades depicts several inter-annual fluctuations that have been responsible for dry and wet years or extreme climate events such as droughts and floods in many parts of the country. the farmers), it will surely affect the lives and overall development of the country. The net result of this process and the re-emission of long wave back to the earth’s surface increases the quantity of heat energy in the earth’s climatic system. This implies that predicted impacts of climate change mentioned earlier will intensify. Offered by The University of Chicago. This global warming is what actually induces the change in climate. USAID staff and other development practitioners may find this information useful for climate risk management and for considering the linkages between climate change and development. Cows and sheep produce large amounts of methane when they digest their food. Through energy creating activities like heating homes and building, transportation and cooking food, traveling (for example, by car, plane, bus and train), treating water to make it drinkable, using power generating sets to generate electricity for our homes, gas flaring, bush burning etc people induce the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Changes in crop development as a result of climate change can cause shortening or lengthening of crop cycles that could lead to decreases or increases in productivity. All these will directly and indirectly affect the livelihoods of fish farmers, their immediate families and their dependants. Competition for farmland has long been a flash point in parts of Africa, but with climate change putting more pressure on resources, it now threatens to become a major source of instability. Recent Fuel Price Increase and the Nigerian Economy, New Technologies and Journalism practice in Nigeria, Causes and Effects of Climate Change in Nigeria, Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria, Causes and Effects of Insecurity in Northern Nigeria   Â, Effect of Insecurity in Nigeria on Economic Development, A Major Cause of Insecurity in Nigeria: Corruption, Climate Change, Conflict, and Insecurity in Nigeria. Trees help to regulate the climate by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. The impacts of climate change will surely be felt in almost all the geographical location as well as sectors of the nation’s development. It is worthy to note that eleven out of the thirty-six states in the country are gradually being swallowed up by desert encroachment. In Nigeria, the primary tropical forest cover has been decimated by 97% mostly since 1990. Coffins at a funeral service on May 22 for 17 worshippers and two priests who were allegedly killed by Fulani herdsmen in central Benue State, Nigeria; the region has suffered a wave of deadly unrest. Despite all these caveats, climate change clearly can play a part in fostering conflict. unfccc climate change: impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation in developing countries i. introduction 5 ii. All Rights Reserve, Climate Change: Causes and Effects in Nigeria. Hence, further changes in rainfall and temperature will affect livestock production as well as availability of animal species. Where institutions and governments are unable to manage the stress or absorb the shocks of a changing climate, threats to the stability of states and societies will only increase. Nigeria and Climate Change Global Trends and Local Challenges. 3. Nigeria’s primary tropical forest in Cross River State has been decimated by 97%, mostly since 1990. Though they had always coped with these changes, future climate changes will likely be so extreme that it may be difficult for them to cope with. So when they are cut down, that beneficial effect is lost and the carbon stored in the trees is released into the atmosphere, adding to the greenhouse effect. Climate change will deepen poverty both directly and indirectly. The direct effects manifest in persistent and resistant to treatment as were never experienced before. As a result of the drying up of village or communities’ forest which the dwellers depend on for firewood, they resort to the depletion of forest reserve as a means of getting wood fuel. nigeria’s national action plan (nap) to reduce short-lived climate pollutants (slcps) As Nigeria’s population has spiraled to 191 million, and amid an ongoing conflict with Islamist insurgents, the competition for land has become fierce. In addition, most of the herbs used are no longer available. Moreover, extreme weather leads to drying up of streams which are sources of irrigation water used by farmers during dry season crop production. There are four major causes of climate change. The common roots of COVID-19 and climate change. Abstract. Deforestation: Deforestation where forests are cut down faster than they are replaced is a major contributor to climate change. This increased demand leads to increased emissions. Increasing livestock farming. Specifically, climate change will manifest in the following ways in the country; 1. The urgent need to address climate change has become even clearer with the release of a major report in October 2018 by the world’s leading scientific body for the assessment of climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Your email address will not be published. This appears in the July 09, 2018 issue of TIME. 4. In Nigeria, thirty years ago, the people relied on local herbs for treating illnesses, but now, they have to go to nearby fairly functional clinics for treatment especially because the herbs are no longer able to stop diseases. These greenhouse gases are able to alter the energy balance of the earth by being able to absorb long wave radiation emitted from the earth’s surface. Parts of the country that experienced soil erosion and operate rain fed agriculture could have decline in agricultural yield of up to 50% between 2000 – 2020 due to increasing impact of climate change. Environment chief Erik Solheim urged countries to help Africa build a more sustainable future, suggesting that solar plants in the Sahel might “help green and uplift the area.” The agency has funded water-management projects in Sudan, where more than 2 million people have been displaced, partly as a result of depleted resources. Various manifestations of its impact are evident in Nigeria, which include increase in drought, scarcity of food instigated somewhat by irregularities in rainfall and over flooding. Indeed, climate change is not a recent environmental phenomenon but its surge and impacts in recent times are alarming (Baba, 2011). At least 10,000 people have died in the resulting clashes since 2011, and many more have lost their homes. A savanna climate, with marked wet and dry seasons, prevails in the north and west, while a steppe climate with little precipitation is found in the far north. Write to Ciara Nugent at ciara.nugent@time.com. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our, Land Conflict Has Long Been a Problem in Nigeria. The direct impact will manifest through the loss of lives, livelihoods, assets, infrastructure, etc. In this article, we take a closer look at the causes and effects of climate change in Nigeria. If there are fewer trees left to absorb Co2, then Co2 will build up in the atmosphere. In Nigeria half of the 15 million population of Lagos lives less than six feet above sea level, including the wealthiest areas of Victoria Island and Lekki Penisula. Climate change is expected to induce health problems both directly and indirectly. Bearing in mind the high population density (9th largest population in the world) of Nigeria, any displacement of this mass of people will be catastrophic especially as over 50% of this population lives below poverty lines. In the rural areas, major activities that contribute to climate change include bush burning, illegal felling of trees, a means of livelihood for the production of fuel wood and charcoal. A United Nations report listed the erosion of natural resources caused by climate change as one of the causes of conflict in Sudan. Pests and diseases migrate in response to climate changes and variations. Therefore, there is need for the country to educate its citenzry on the importance of the forest reserves as well as the need to avoid unnecessary cutting down of trees. Subtle changes in key environment variables such as temperature, salinity, wind speed and direction, ocean currents, strength of upwelling due to climate change could sharply alter the abundance, distribution and availability of fish production in the country. In addition, the Niger Delta may be the source of oil wealth but its low-lying terrain criss-crossed with water ways makes it extremely vulnerable to flooding. This statement shows the seriousness of the threat posed by climate change to countries in Sub-Saharan African, including Nigeria, that depend mostly on climate-sensitive resources for sustenance of livelihood and overall development. And if nothing is done, there is going to be more rise in the earth’s temperature to the extent that it will be difficult to cope with it. Already, clashes like those in Nigeria have killed tens of thousands in Mali, the Central African Republic, South Sudan and others. Copyright © 2017 ResearchCyber.com. The communiqué stated that climate change is a development issue that should be mainstreamed into various sectors of national, regional and state development plans. Worldwide, the temperature of the atmosphere near the earth’s surface has risen by 0.75 degree celcius consequently sea level is expected to rise with the rising temperature, this would swamp some small, low lying islands states and put millions of people in all low-lying areas at risk of flooding. The change over time may be due to natural variability or human activity. Deforestation makes such a huge contribution to carbon emissions because trees absorb Co2 as they grow. Nigeria - Nigeria - Climate: Nigeria has a tropical climate with variable rainy and dry seasons, depending on location. Climate change is widely recognized as the most serious environmental threat facing our planet today. This prompted this study that took a general overview of climate change impacts in Nigeria. Nigeria is strongly predisposed to severe negative impacts of climate change … There is need for the Nigerian government to develop policies to back up institutional efforts to combat threats of climate change. In June, the U.N. On the side, livestock production systems in Nigeria would be vulnerable to climate change in respect of anticipated decrease in rainfall in the Sudan-sahelian zone and consequent reduction in the available pastureland. Furthermore, African countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change because of their dependency on rain fed agriculture, high levels of poverty, low levels of human and physical capital, inequitable land distribution and poor infrastructure. It is estimated that by 2100, Nigeria and other West African countries are likely to have agricultural loses of up to 4% of GDP due to climate change. These include some of the continent’s largest populations, such as Nigeria, where only 50 percent of respondents said they knew about climate change, and South Africa (41 percent). Therefore, there is need to mitigate the impacts of climate change must be given priority if the nations Millennium development goals will ever be achieved. Climate change in Africa is an increasingly serious threat for Africans as Africa is among the most vulnerable continents to climate change. Global warming will continue in centuries ahead even if emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosol concentration stabilize. For your custom-made paper, report, or article; kindly call Thompson – 0703 022 8325. Cutting down forests (deforestation). Climate Change Effect on Crop and Animal Production: As temperature increases and rainfall pattern becomes more unpredictable, crop yields are expected to drop significantly. * Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry in the United States is a net sink and offsets approximately 12 percent of these greenhouse gas emissions, this emissions offset is not included in total above. Your email address will not be published. Under a high emissions scenario, diarrhoeal deaths attributable to climate change in children under 15 years old is projected to The Sahel is warming 1.5 times faster than the global average, owing to greenhouse-gas emissions. Some major cities are sinking and could become unlivable due to climate change and rising sea levels. The general environmental effects of climate change include; rise in sea level due to melting of ice caps; changes in dates of onset and end of the rainy season; reduced rainfall amounts in Northern Nigeria, and increased rainfall amounts in coastal areas of the country, leading to flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 6.7 inches per year due to excessive groundwater pumping. This accounts for 20 percent of the world’s carbon emissions (more than the entire transport sector produces). 3. Research Cyber Team hopes this article was helpful. As a result, cattle herders from northern Nigeria have been pushed farther and farther south to find land to graze livestock, causing friction with farmers settled in central states. Joe Biden and Kamala Harris Are TIME's 2020 Person of the Year, BTS Is TIME's 2020 Entertainer of the Year, You can unsubscribe at any time. This it does through activities that cause emissions of greenhouse gases (mainly consist of carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide). Climate change is one of many root causes of conflict around the world: it leads to food shortages, threatens people’s livelihoods, and displaces entire populations. Climate Change and Forestry in Nigeria: The forest reserves of the nation are not left out in the threat posed by climate change. Therefore, identification of proper adaptation strategies is a high priority for the fishery sector. Carbon dioxide is one of the more important gases responsible for the greenhouse effect (warming of the earth). climate change and adaptation 8 2.1 the need for adaptation 8 2.2 adaptation and the unfccc 10 iii. Indeed, Nigeria has long been known to be vulnerable to climate change and its adverse effects, especially on the health and livelihoods of Nigerians. 2. Climate change will affect agriculture and forestry through higher temperatures, elevated CO2 concentration, precipitation changes, increased weeds, pests and disease pressure, and increased vulnerability of organic carbon pools. These are: Changes in earth’s environment as a result of human activity. The flares have apparently contributed more greenhouse gases hence climate change in the country. Across the Sahel, more than 80% of people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods, according to the U.N. As water and farmland become scarcer, land conflicts in countries with strong ethnic divides are poised to get far worse. Parts of New Orleans are sinking at a rate of 2 inches per year and could be underwater by 2100. The main cause of deforestation in Nigeria is the demand for wood fuel. The general environmental effects of climate change include; rise in sea level due to melting of ice caps; changes in dates of onset and end of the rainy season; reduced rainfall amounts in Northern Nigeria, and increased rainfall amounts in coastal areas of the country, leading to flooding. The intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) defines climate change as statistically significant variations that persist for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Despite the persistent climate denialism in some policy circles, by now it is clear to the majority across the world that climate change … This class describes the science of global warming and the forecast for humans’ impact on Earth’s climate. Resources listed below summarize existing information on climate change impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and USAID climate and development programs in Nigeria. Man’s activities which cause emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase global warming. The industries that replace the forests do not only damage the earth’s ability to absorb Co2, they often cause an additional problem by producing carbon emissions of their own. Overview. 1) The concepts of climate, environment, climate and environmental changes; 2) Causes of climate and environmental changes; Regards! Required fields are marked *. Increase in World Population: As the world’s population grows, there are more people who need food, livestock and energy. Worldwide, extreme weather is predicted to become more common and animals, plants and crops are all expected to be badly affected. By signing up you are agreeing to our, U.K. Says It Will End Support For Overseas Oil, Gas and Coal Projects With 'Very Limited Exceptions', Eric Yuan Is TIME's 2020 Businessperson of the Year, Sign up to receive the top stories you need to know now on politics, health and more, © 2020 TIME USA, LLC. All of these will continue to negatively affect human life and the ecosystems in Nigeria. The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is reported to have over one hundred and twenty-three gas flaring sites making Nigeria one of the highest emitters of greenhouse gases in Africa. from climate extreme events. Furthermore, extreme weather events such as thunderstorms, heavy winds and floods devastate farmlands and can lead to crop failure. Bloody clashes between farmers and nomadic herders in Nigeria’s central Plateau State in late June claimed at least 86 lives, as each group vied for the region’s increasingly scarce farmland. assessing the impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to, climate change 13 Furthermore, extreme weather events are known to facilitate some cardiovascular disease like asthma. Climate change is global in its causes but its consequences are far more reaching in developing countries particularly Nigeria whose biodiversity and ecosystems are already faced with other threats like habitat degradation, ecology-economics mismatch and escalating population growth. Burning coal, oil and gas produces carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. NIAMEY, April 3, 2013 – As a landlocked and essentially desert country, Niger is one of the countries of the world most severely threatened by food insecurity.El Hadj Adama Touré, a World Bank economist specializing in agronomy, explains how the country can better manage the climate … May be immune from it woodland areas or article ; kindly call Thompson – 0703 022 8325 this for... Warming is what actually induces the change over time may be negative or positive or a combination disease like.... Times faster than the entire transport sector produces ) to negatively affect human life and the forecast for humans’ on!, … Archive Abstract fostering conflict left out in the southwest and farther inland at the topic suggests that may. Deforestation where forests are cut down faster than they are replaced is a major challenge facing the world today and. 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