Prehistoric Astronomy Fast forward about 10,000 years to the time of the first civilizations, and the earliest astronomers who already figured out how to use the sky. At this time, there was the first astronomical observatory/calendar- the Stonehenge. Our trip through the timeline of the history of astronomy now takes us to Torun, a small city in present day Poland, in 1473. 129 B.C. To them, each star was some form of God or Goddess, or part of one. History of Astronomy Ancient civilizations believed their gods lived in the skies, and so early astronomy was often a mix of detailed observations of the celestual heavens and religion. This chart represents important events in astronomy, like discoveries and inventions that have impacted astronomy through the ages: 2000 B.C. The study of astronomy is vast and encompasses a huge amount of information. Copernicus was a scholar who studied mathematics, optics, and canon or church law. […] The Egyptians are not an exemption to this. wonderful universe. Dates in red are from the basic timeline of events related to "From Stargazers to Starships". On February 19, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was born. Site Map. Astronomy - Astronomy - History of astronomy: Astronomy was the first natural science to reach a high level of sophistication and predictive ability, which it achieved already in the second half of the 1st millennium bce. In some cultures, they were priests, priestesses, and other "elites" who studied the movement of celestial bodies to determine rituals, celebrations, and planting cycles. No wonder astronomy has inspired artists and poets through the ages, from ancient Greece to today’s television series. Annotated Timeline Dates extend to 2005; those marked "c." are approximate. Astronomy in the Enlightenment and the Renaissance. The Revd. The sun was represented by multiple Gods. According to legend, two Chinese astronomers are executed for not predicting an eclipse and for being drunk as it happened. Edward Duke was the first person to associate astronomy with Stonehenge, describing it as a planetarium full of significant astronomical alignments - although he named none. In astronomy, he made the newtonian telescope and wrote Philosophiae Naturalis Principa Mathematica which laid down the foundation of classic mechanics. The Stonehenge is located north of Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. Ancient Egyptian astronomy was a religious tradition. Egyptian Astronomy; Having one of the most advanced and affluent cultures, Ancient Egypt has significant contributions to astronomy of today. The Egyptians had no true understanding of the universe, so many myths were created as an explanation for astronomical events. Just like in any ancient civilization, the movements and patterns of the sky ignited the creation of myths to explain astronomical events. 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