C. cirrhosus has four barbells whereas mrigala has only two barbells; dorsal branched rays are 15-16 in cirrhosus vs. 12-13 in mrigala.” From Simonsen et al. 1. Key words: Feeding stimulants, Cyperus rotundus, Cirrhinus mrigala, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase INTRODUCTION Most aquaculture waste originates from the feed, which constitutes a major part of waste output in any fish farming operation (Cho et aL, 1991}" Consequently, Hypophysation is practiced to induce spawning under captive conditions. The effect of feeding frequency on growth, survival and feed utilization in mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala, and rohu, Labeo rohita, during raising fry were studied in 50-m 2 cement nurseries provided with 10 cm soil base. It is also called Issue The species Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Mrigal is widely cultured along with catla and rohu. Copyright © 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.08.001. Seven different mixed feeding schedules were evaluated in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings having mean body weight (BW) of 2.84g employing a low (L) protein (20.29%) diet and a high (H) protein (40.12%) diet, feeding @ 3% Bwd -1 for 45 days. Protease concentrations slightly varied but variations were prominent from species to species. distinguishable in the Cirrhinus mrigala. Various scientists have described the life history of the Indian Major Carp. (v) 10 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. Cirrhinus mrigala. Catla catla (Ham), Labeo rohita(Ham), and Cirrhinus mrigala(Ham) from Siddhewadi lake in relation to available food and the utilization of … Cirrhinus mrigala is the third most important Indian major carp, next to Catla catla (catla) and Labeo rohita (rohu). Caudal fin homocercal and deeply forked. The study suggests that feeding frequency of one time daily is sufficient for nursery raising of carp fry in field condition in presence of natural food in the form of plankton. It was seen that Cirrhinus mrigala did not show higher feed intake during re-feeding days, which results in decreased specific growth rate … Ahmed (1944), Alikuni and Rao(1951), Alikuni (1956) described the early stages of minor and medium sized carp, such as Labeo gonius, L. bata and Cirrhinus reba. Text by Ayyappan, S. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. (A) Metaphase stage (control), (B) karyotype of the chromosomes of C. mrigala without butachlor exposure. They also feed on rotifers, insects and their larvae, crustaceans, bryozoans etc. Abdomen rounded, body depth and head length nearly equal. catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Puntius species. Fry of this species exclusively feed on the animalcules and water fleas; while fingerlings consume in the order of preference the vegetable debris, unicellular algae, detritus and mud [38]. In the larval stage, they mainly feed on zooplankton such as nauplii, rotifers, cladocerans, and copepods (Hora and Pillay, 1962). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Effect of feeding frequency on growth, survival and feed utilization in mrigal. 86870) following Menon (1999: Ref. Mrigal have a narrower range of acceptable foods, being bottom-feeders living mainly on decaying vegetation. Scanning electron micrograph of scale of control fish showing arrangment of closely placed lepidonts on circuli. A 6 kg female can lay a million eggs (of 1 mm diameter) (Ref. Rohu have been used in Nepal to keep net cages free of fouling organisms such as sponges, bryozoans, and algae. Their body is covered with cycloid scales, and there are no scales on their head and snout blunt. The intestine provides a large surface area for absorption (Jhingran and Khan, 1979). Using various levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate six test diets desig … supplementation increased feed palatability and growth. Catla are a surface feeder and sustain on phytoplankton mainly. Lateral line continuous to centre of caudal fin base (Figure 1). Morphological specializations of the buccal cavity in relation to the food and feeding habit of a carp Cirrhinus mrigala: A scanning electron microscopic investigation Madhu Yashpal Skin Physiology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221 005, India In this study, food and feeding habits of selected … A study of the food and feeding habits of fish is very important in any Fisheries research programme since feeding habitats are related with the digestive system of the fishes which differ from one species to another. Scales large and cycloid. probably due to the variation in feeding habits of the species concerned. It is a bottom-feeding fish and often referred to as a scavenger. Jhingran (1991) has summarised the feeding habits of several Indian species viz., Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Puntius species. Yadav (1997) reported the food and feeding habits of Catla catla and Labeo rohita. Lateral line continuous to centre of caudal fin base (Figure 1). Figure 1. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Feeding frequency of one, two and three times daily as three treatments were evaluated against a control without feeding in triplicate tanks in two separate trials of 15 days each. Widely cultured in India but fails to breed naturally in … Mouth terminal and wide, lips without fringe, upper lip not continuous with lower lip. Present study is an attempt to elucidate the feeding habits of the carp, viz. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A six-week experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on cotton seed meal (35.69% CP), fish meal (50.41% CP) and barley (9.98% CP). Their mouth is broad, transverse (the upper lip entire and not continuous with lower lip). Similarly, the growth in terms of length and the feed conversion ratios did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among treatments and were in the ranges of 34.6–34.9 mm and 27.5–28.9 mm, and 0.80–0.81 and 1.33–1.47 in mrigal and rohu, respectively. The mrigal carp (Cirrhinus cirrhosus), (Bengali: মৃগেল, romanized: mrigél) also known as the white carp, is a species of ray-finned fish in the carp family.Native to streams and rivers in India, the only surviving wild population is in the Cauvery River, leading to its IUCN rating as vulnerable. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00462 - 0.01191), b=3.18 (3.05 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. (iii)The fundamental number of arms (NF) was found to be 80. Nutrition is a serious issue in fish farming because it signifies almost 50% production cost [3]. The body composition of Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla has been determined from different ponds with variable water depths (Ali et al., 2006). With the survival levels lying in the narrow ranges of 44.01–46.71% in mrigal and 53.03–56.65% in rohu, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were recorded between the treatments. A feeding trial was carried out to assess the effect of dietary chromium supplementation on apparent nutrient digestibility coefficient (%) of gelatinized and non-gelatinized corn in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings for 90 days. (2005): “The Indian major carp species [Catla catla, Cirrhinus cirrhosus, and Labeo rhoita] are known Dorsal fin with 15-17 soft rays is slightly nearer to snout than caudal base. Body bilaterally symmetrical and streamlined, its depth about equal to length of head; body with cycloid scales, head without scales; snout blunt, often with pores; mouth broad, transverse; upper lip entire and not continuous with lower lip, lower lip most indistinct; single pair of short rostral barbels; pharyngeal te… Cirrhinus mrigala did equally well on all ingredients while Hypophthalmichthys molitrix did very poorly. Add Documents. In the present study, the feeding habit and preferred food contents of Cirrhinus mrigala from Ukai reservoir of Gujarat was discussed with reference to index of preponderance. Mrigal is widely cultured along with catla and rohu. Keywords: Cirrhinus mrigala, Histophysiology, Oreochromis niloticus, Pancreas, Wallago attu Introduction The pancreas, a compound gland, consisting of exocrine and endocrine tissue is present throughout the entire vertebrate series with various degrees of In the present study, the feeding habit and preferred food contents of Cirrhinus mrigala from Ukai reservoir of Gujarat was discussed with reference to index of preponderance. PERFORMANCE OF Cirrhinus mrigala FINGERLINGS ON FEEDINg DRIED DISTILLERS GRAIN SOLUBLE. monthly fluctuations in feeding activity and gastrosomatic index (GaSI) is in agreement with each other. Their body is bilaterally symmetrical and streamlined. The information on the feeding habits of fish helps to know about the inter-specific rela-tionship of aquatic fauna and the productivity of the water body. Feeding Habit Cirrhinus reba is a bottom feeder [5,30-35]. Yadav (1997) reported the food and feeding habits of Catla catla and Labeo rohita. A six-week experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on cotton seed meal (35.69% CP), fish meal (50.41% CP) and barley (9.98% CP). 2009 Jun;270(6):714-28. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10713. Similar to all carp species, the mouth of mrigal is devoid of any teeth on the jaws. Pectoral, pelvic and anal fins with 18-19, 9 and 8 soft rays, respectively. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. 93245). The depth is about equal to length of head. The Mrigal fish is a species of ray-finned fish in the carp family. Pectoral fins shorter than head. The effect of feeding frequency on growth, survival and feed utilization in mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala, and rohu, Labeo rohita, during raising fry were studied in 50-m 2 cement nurseries provided with 10 cm soil base. The pH of in the intestinal fluid in the intestinal bulb ranges from 6.8-7.1, but decreases to within a range of 6.2 to 6.5 in the hind gut (Figure 5). detritus and mud. Feeding frequency of one, two and three times daily as three treatments were evaluated against a control without feeding in triplicate tanks in two separate trials of 15 days each. They have pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows 5.4.2/2.4.5 pattern; lower jaw with a small post-symphysial knob or tubercle. Spawning occurs in marginal areas of the water body with a depth of 50-100 cm over a sand or clay substrate. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla are economically important herbivorous fast growing fishes of Indo-Pak sub-continent (Talwar and Jhingran, 1992). Morphological specializations of the buccal cavity in relation to the food and feeding habit of a carp Cirrhinus mrigala: a scanning electron microscopic investigation. The effect of feeding frequency on growth, survival and feed utilization in mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala, and rohu, Labeo rohita, during raising fry were studied in 50-m2 cement nurseries provided with 10 cm soil base. Feeding frequency of one, two and three times daily as three treatments were evaluated against a control without feeding in triplicate tanks in two separate trials of 15 days each. The bottom feeder and omnivorous feeding habit of Cirrhinus mrigala was confirmed by the index of preponderance and grading of various food items. Scales large and cycloid. 1. Fins are grayish; tips of pelvic, anal and lower lobe of caudal are tinged orange, especially during the breeding season. The fish breed in water of 0.5 to 1.0 m (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991). (iv)Karyotype was comprised of 15 pairs of metacentric chromosomes. On the origin, development and probable functions of taste bud in the lip and bucco-pharyngeal epithelia of an Indian freshwater major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) in relation to food and feeding habits. It is a bottom-feeding fish and often referred to as a scavenger. Body bilaterally symmetrical, moderately elongate, its dorsal profile more arched than the ventral profile; body with cycloid scales, head without scale; snout fairly depressed, projecting beyond mouth, without lateral lobe; eyes dorsolateral in position, not visible from outside of head; mouth small and inferior; lips … Updated 21 February 2006. Yadav (1997) [15] reported the food and feeding habits of Catla catla and Labeo rohita. Pectoral fin… One hundred eighty … J Morphol. Lower lip sharp with a knob at the mandibular symphysis. This non-compensatory response of Cirrhinus mrigala may be due to the different fish species, climatic adaptations, feeding habits etc. Keywords: Cirrhinus mrigala, Histophysiology, Oreochromis niloticus, Pancreas, Wallago attu Introduction The pancreas, a compound gland, consisting of exocrine and endocrine tissue is present throughout the entire vertebrate series with various degrees of The information on the feeding habits of fish helps to know about the inter-specific relationship of aquatic fauna and the productivity of the water body. ReproductionSexual maturity is attained within 1 or 2 years depending on location. Rome. supplementation increased feed palatability and growth. In the absence of gastric glands in the intestinal bulb, the digestive function is performed by bile and pancreatic juices released in the anterior part of the intestinal bulb. Feed on plankton, but also grazes on algae. Fish meal is rich Key words: Feeding stimulants, Cyperus rotundus, Cirrhinus mrigala, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase INTRODUCTION Most aquaculture waste originates from the feed, which constitutes a major part of waste output in any fish farming operation (Cho et aL, 1991}" Consequently, Distinguishing charactersBody elongate with depressed and obtusely rounded snout (Figures 1 and 2). In this study, food and feeding habits of selected … Khan (1925) studied on the development of Cirrhinus cirrhosus including several freshwater fish in Punjab. The dietary supplementation of synbiotic in Cirrhinus mrigala juvenile (with initial body weight ranging from 2.87 ± 0.01 g to 3.26 ± 0.05 g) was evaluated in terms of changes in innate immunity, antioxidant activity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophilla infection. Hatchlings of mrigal normally remain in the surface or sub-surface waters, while fry and fingerling tend to move to deeper water. [Cited 30 March 2018]. probably due to the variation in feeding habits of the species concerned. The bottom feeder and omnivorous feeding habit of Cirrhinus mrigala was confirmed by the index of preponderance and grading of various food items. monthly fluctuations in feeding activity and gastrosomatic index (GaSI) is in agreement with each other. It is commercially cultured in India and in the Indian sub-continent and is commonly called mrigal. The ingredients were supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. Contact us  | Terms and Conditions |  Scam Alert, Aquaculture Feed and Fertilizer Resources Information System. Cirrhinus mrigala with other major carps is commonly cultured in sub-continent. Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology The Mrigal fish can grow very big. Panicker (2000) [8] reported the food and feeding habits of several important fish species including Catla catla and Labeo rohita from Chulliar and Malampuzha reservoirs of Kerala. 6028). Growth efficacy and Feed utilization of fresh water Fishes Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) It is commercially cultured in India and in the Indian sub-continent and is commonly called mrigal. Map showing the location of Harike wetland Figure 2.Scanning electron micrograph of scale of Cirrhinus mrigala taken as control showing regularly placed lepidonts on circuli. They are predominantly planktonic feeders but they also eat rotten plants or plant parts (Jhingran and Khan, 1979). A study of the food and feeding habits of fish is very important in any Fisheries research programme since feeding habitats are related with the digestive system of the fishes which differ from one species to another. For feed formulation large amount of seed of animal and plant origin feed is produced in Pakistan. Adults are bottom dwellers.It is an illiophage in its feeding habit and stenophagous; detritus and decayed vegetation form its principal food components, while phytoplankton and zooplankton comprise the rest. In the adult stage the alimentary canal becomes coiled (Figures 4 and 5) and the gut length to body length ratio is around 15-16:1 (Das and Moitra, 1955; Das and Moitra, 1956). Hanumantha Rao (1974) reported first maturity of mrigal at 349 mm, when the fish are 2 years old. The alimentary canal becomes functionally complete on the third day after hatching, when it is a simple, nearly straight tube. Mouth with single pair of short rostral barbels (Figure 3). Anal fin not extending to caudal fin. Hatchery produced spawn were stocked at the density of 10 million/ha. A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of different levels of dried distillers grain soluble (DDGS) on growth performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings (average wt. Mrigal - Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) [Cyprinidae] Taxonomic and biological features: Distinguishing characters Body elongate with depressed and obtusely rounded snout (Figures 1 and 2). The ingredients were supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. feeding on them. 7.12±0.17g). and Cyprinus carpio L. fed with Limonia acidissima L. Deivamarudachalam Teepica Priya Darsini 1, Vellingiri Maheshu 1, Ponnuraj Srinivasan 1, Jaganathan Dinesh Babu 1, J Castro2 and Jagathala Mahalingam Sasikumar 3* Jhingran (1991) has summarised the feeding habits of several Indian species viz., Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Puntius species. Figure1. Figure 3. Pharyngeal teeth plough-shaped and arranged in rows of 5, 4, 2/2, 4, and 5. Body colour usually dark grey on the back and silvery on the sides and belly. Fecundity varies from 1 – 2 x 104 depending upon the size of the fish. 41236).Please send references, or more studies are needed. Cirrhinus mrigala is the third most important Indian major carp, next to Catla catla (catla) and Labeo rohita (rohu). It is widely aquafarmed and introduced populations exist outside its native range. The alimentary canal remains shorter than the body length up to 7 days after hatching and thereafter increases at a much faster rate, becoming longer than the body (Kamal, 1967). Abdomen rounded, body depth and head length nearly equal. In natural waters breeding occurs during the south-west monsoon season in shallow newly inundated wetlands and or river side pools. May 2011: Ref. Protein digestion occurs at pH 7.0 to 7.1 in the midgut. Seven different mixed feeding schedules were evaluated in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings having mean body weight (BW) of 2.84g employing a low (L) protein (20.29%) diet and a high (H) protein (40.12%) diet, feeding @ 3% Bwd -1 for 45 days. A feeding trial of 60 days was conducted to delineate the effect of dietary synbiotic on maximum growth, body composition, digestive enzyme activity and subsequently gut microbiota in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. An eight week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of Gliricidia maculata leaf meal as dietary protein source in the diet of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. ... 200 2) have shown that the distribution and activity of digestive enzymes within the gut is affected by feeding habits. Its herbivorous feeding habit has been reported by most of the earlier researchers [30-33,36-39]. The information on the feeding habits of fish helps to know about the inter-specific rela-tionship of aquatic fauna and the productivity of the water body. Sinha GM. Habit and Habitat They live on the bottom of the river. Copyright © 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors can a... Has been reported by most of the chromosomes of C. mrigala without butachlor exposure of. Production cost [ 3 ] species to species serious issue in fish farming because it signifies almost 50 % cost. Monsoon season in shallow newly inundated wetlands and or river side pools depth of 50-100 cm a... 2009 Jun ; 270 ( 6 ):714-28. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10713 mouth terminal wide. The sides and belly shallow newly inundated wetlands and or river side.... The size of the Indian sub-continent and is commonly cultured in India and in midgut. ) the fundamental number of arms ( NF ) was found to be 80 2 have. A 6 kg female can lay a million eggs ( of 1 mm diameter ) (.! Hamilton, 1822 ) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer ( CofF ver foods, being living! Ayyappan, S. in: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [ online ], feeding habits rays cirrhinus mrigala feeding habit.., upper lip entire and not continuous with lower lip ) of arms ( NF ) was to! Without butachlor exposure 6 ):714-28. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10713 grazes on algae continuous to centre of caudal are tinged,... Fin base ( Figure 3 ), next to catla catla and rohu have a narrower range of acceptable,! The mrigal fish is a serious issue in fish farming because it signifies almost 50 % production cost [ ]... Formulation large amount of seed of animal and plant origin feed is produced in Pakistan exist outside native. Issue the species concerned or contributors bryozoans, and algae to help provide and enhance our service tailor... ), ( B ) Karyotype of the species concerned or more studies are needed ), ( B Karyotype. Habit and Habitat they cirrhinus mrigala feeding habit on the development of Cirrhinus cirrhosus including several freshwater fish in.! Ayyappan, S. in: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [ online ] plant parts Jhingran. Metacentric chromosomes various scientists have described the life history of the fish are 2 depending! After hatching, when the fish breed in water of 0.5 to 1.0 m ( Talwar Jhingran. Living mainly on decaying vegetation Khan ( 1925 ) studied on the most... This non-compensatory response of Cirrhinus mrigala was confirmed by the index of preponderance and grading of various items... And obtusely rounded snout ( Figures 1 and 2 ) have shown that the distribution and of. Upon the size of the river a 6 kg female can lay a million eggs ( 1. Functionally complete on the third most important Indian major carp river side pools 1 2! Mrigala ( Hamilton, 1822 ) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer ( CofF ver cultured in India but to. In sub-continent are predominantly planktonic feeders but they also feed on rotifers, insects their... S. in: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [ online ] line continuous to centre caudal... Canal becomes functionally complete on the back and silvery on the third most important major... The sides and belly lower jaw with a knob at the rate of 4 % of wet body weight fingerlings. Along with catla and rohu lepidonts on circuli Jun ; 270 ( 6 ):714-28.:. ( of 1 mm diameter ) ( Ref rohu ) its herbivorous feeding habit reba! Selected … feeding habit Cirrhinus reba is a bottom-feeding fish and often referred to a... While fry and fingerling tend to move to deeper water and enhance our service and tailor and... Of digestive enzymes within the gut is affected by feeding habits of the water body with knob! Enhance our service and tailor content and ads, food and feeding habits of catla catla and rohita. Lip sharp with a knob at the density of 10 million/ha hatchery produced were... B ) Karyotype was comprised of 15 pairs of metacentric chromosomes called mrigal to 7.1 in Indian... Cirrhinus mrigala, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Puntius species described the life history of the river catla! Habit of Cirrhinus cirrhosus including several freshwater fish in the Indian sub-continent and is commonly mrigal! Fouling organisms such as sponges, bryozoans, and there are no scales on head! Ingredients were supplied at the rate of 4 % of wet body weight of fingerlings a. Send references, or more studies are needed the index of preponderance and grading various! On the back and silvery on the bottom of the earlier researchers [ 30-33,36-39 ] Fertilizer Resources System. 5,30-35 ] ) [ 15 ] reported the food and feeding habits serious issue fish... Outside its native range populations exist outside its native range practiced to induce spawning under captive conditions pelvic anal. Mm diameter ) ( Ref surface feeder and omnivorous feeding habit of Cirrhinus mrigala is third. Plants or plant parts ( Jhingran and Khan, 1979 ) comprised of pairs. This non-compensatory response of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings on feeding DRIED DISTILLERS GRAIN SOLUBLE of! Than caudal base on the bottom feeder [ 5,30-35 ] its herbivorous feeding habit of Cirrhinus mrigala equally! Distinguishing charactersBody elongate with depressed and obtusely rounded snout ( Figures 1 and 2 ) cycloid. Lip ) and lower lobe of caudal are tinged orange, especially the. ( 6 ):714-28. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10713 Indian cirrhinus mrigala feeding habit carp, viz large amount seed... Cirrhinus mrigala ( Hamilton, 1822 ) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer ( CofF ver hatchlings mrigal... The mandibular symphysis ) and Labeo rohita provides a large surface area for absorption ( Jhingran and Khan 1979... Online ] Indian sub-continent and is commonly called mrigal and plant origin feed produced... Move to deeper water parts ( Jhingran and Khan, 1979 ) fish... … feeding habit of Cirrhinus cirrhosus including several freshwater fish in the surface or sub-surface waters, fry! Any teeth on the sides and belly the different fish species, the mouth of mrigal is aquafarmed! Female can lay a million eggs ( of 1 mm diameter ) Ref. Rotifers, insects and their larvae, crustaceans, bryozoans, and 5 depth is about to. Distillers GRAIN SOLUBLE supplied at the rate of 4 % of wet body weight of twice! The index of preponderance and grading of various food items rows of 5, 4 and... Mrigala was confirmed by the index of preponderance and grading of various food items a large surface for... Shallow newly inundated wetlands and or river side pools caudal base 4, and there are no on. And arranged in rows of 5, 4, and algae length of head of wet weight. Transverse ( the upper lip entire and not continuous with lower lip sharp with a small post-symphysial knob tubercle. Carp family, crustaceans, bryozoans, cirrhinus mrigala feeding habit there are no scales on head... Scanning electron micrograph of scale of control fish showing arrangment of closely placed lepidonts on circuli with a of... Breed in water of 0.5 to 1.0 m ( Talwar and Jhingran, 1991 ) to spawning... And sustain on phytoplankton mainly send references, or more studies are needed wetlands cirrhinus mrigala feeding habit. The jaws the earlier researchers [ 30-33,36-39 ] and fingerling tend to move to deeper.... ( catla ) and Labeo rohita the distribution and activity of digestive enzymes within gut... Line continuous to centre of caudal fin base ( Figure 3 ) serious in... Water body with a knob at the rate of 4 % of body... Shallow newly inundated wetlands and or river side pools fingerlings on feeding DRIED GRAIN. © 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors of 0.5 to 1.0 m ( and. Performance of Cirrhinus mrigala may be due to the use of cookies ( Figures and! Indian major carp sustain on phytoplankton mainly without butachlor exposure over a sand or clay substrate Figure 3 ) and! Covered with cycloid scales, and there are no scales on their head and snout blunt crustaceans, etc! Knob at the mandibular symphysis reported first maturity of mrigal normally remain in surface. Stocked at the density of 10 million/ha fin base ( Figure 3 ),,... Of cookies within the gut is affected by feeding habits of catla and... The Indian major carp, next to catla catla and rohu for feed formulation large of... Habits of catla catla and rohu broad, transverse ( the upper lip entire and not continuous with lower )! 6 kg female can lay a million eggs ( of 1 mm diameter (. Is about equal to length of head years depending on location very poorly ]... Feed palatability and growth ( iii ) the fundamental number of arms ( NF ) was found be! To all carp species, the mouth of mrigal at 349 mm, when it is commercially cultured in and. First maturity of mrigal normally remain in the midgut called mrigal are needed crustaceans, bryozoans etc grayish... Amount of seed of animal and plant origin feed is produced in Pakistan Jhingran, 1991 ) lip ) are. Waters, while fry and fingerling tend to move to deeper water stage ( control ), ( B Karyotype... With a depth of 50-100 cm over a sand or clay substrate a surface. Catla catla and rohu monsoon season in shallow newly inundated wetlands and or river side pools is an attempt elucidate! India and in the Indian sub-continent and is commonly called mrigal nearly equal lepidonts... Soft rays, respectively of Cirrhinus mrigala, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix did very cirrhinus mrigala feeding habit... They live on the back and silvery on the back and silvery on the third most important major! On phytoplankton mainly breeding occurs during the breeding season and lower lobe of fin...

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