SPI data are available in Figures 3 and 8. First, the annual average standard precipitation index (SPI) (McKee et al., 1993) value was calculated using the spatial distribution of calculated SPI values that were obtained using the kriging method across Iran. Some 60% of Iran's economy is centrally planned. The Khuzestan province with a relatively high surface water availability had the highest irrigated farming area (14.7%). Number of times cited according to CrossRef: A Novel Fuzzy Random Forest Model for Meteorological Drought Classification and Prediction in Ungauged Catchments. Geophysics, Marine Most of Iran's rain‐fed areas are located in western and northern parts of Iran. The next study will more closely look into the distribution of crops patterns and discuss the future of Iran’s agriculture in the contexts of freshwater consumption and the monetary value of products. Iran was the ninth‐largest wheat importer and the third‐largest rice importer in the world in 1999 (Alizadeh & Keshavarz, 2005). Given the changes in provincial boundaries during the study period and lack of complete time series, these figures have been produced based on the available data from 2004 to 2013. The green rectangles represent the input data, the orange hexagons represent the test elements, and the blue polygons represent the test outputs. Negative values were obtained for rain‐fed area of most crops in the last 4 years of the study period although the SPI values were positive in three of these years (Figure 8a). The anthropogenic impacts of development and frequent droughts have limited Iran's water availability. 2008. The recent initiative is expected to lift Iran’s agricultural mechanization rate above 2hp/ha by 2021. The future of agriculture. And they will have better management of agricultural water consumption and water governance in Iran. Iraqi farmers normally irrigate their crops by flooding their fields; however, this is a short-term solution which causes even more problems in the future, including erosion. In 1983, maximum rain‐fed cucurbits area coincided with the maximum SPI (Figure 8a). As shown in Figure 5a, while the total farmed area has not changed much, the rain‐fed and irrigated areas have decreased and increased, respectively. Learn more. The western and northern provinces have the highest contribution to rain‐fed agriculture. However, only a tenth is actually irrigated and used. Bahrain has a negligible production of cereals and other agriculture products. This study investigates if declining water availability impacted agriculture in Iran. The Fresh Fruit & Vegetables (FFV) production is near to 30 million tons per year. This has major implications for Iran's agricultural sector which is responsible for about 90% of water consumption at the national scale. The long‐term annual precipitation over Iran is under 250 mm/year, one third of mean global precipitation. TEHRAN, Jul. Iran breached the 3.67% cap in July 2019 and the enrichment level has remained steady at up to 4.5% since then. AQUASTAT Country Profile – Iran (Islamic Republic of). One notable project led by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations focuses on the country’s forestry sector. The MK and SSE results indicate that total production for all crops, total areas for forage, special vegetation, and industrial production had significant increasing trends; while total agriculture areas for cucurbits, legume, and cereal did not have notable trends during the study period. Agriculture & Farming Total Business Referrals: 28,270 As the Gulf continues to develop its agricultural and farming capabilities, ABC’s listing covers agricultural societies, hydroponic farms, mills, importers and suppliers of foodstuff, machinery, equipment, and products related to the sector. “Before the revolution, in 1979, the total agricultural crop was 26 million tons. • Global forest area will decrease by 2030 but the rate of loss will slow down. The highest positive correlation between SPI and cereal rain‐fed area/production showed that rain‐fed cereal has the highest sensitivity to meteorological variability among all types of crops. After an initial 90-day wind down period, the first round of sanctions went into effect. It is dominated by oil and gas production, although over 40 industries are directly involved in the Tehran Stock Exchange, one of the best performing exchanges in the world over the past decade. Agriculture plays an essential role in providing food security and socioeconomic stability. The total special vegetation area had the highest increasing trend with the rate of 8,000 ha/year. Iran's irrigated and rain‐fed agricultural (a) area, (b) production, and (c) production by crop type (1981–2013). Iran's agricultural sector contributed 12 percent of the GDP in 2005 and employed 30% (2001) of the labour force (CIA). In the long-term, the Iran GDP From Agriculture is projected to trend around 15541.00 IRR Billion in 2021 and 15852.00 IRR Billion in 2022, according to our econometric models. Water management in Iran: What is causing the looming crisis? Iran's increasing water shortage (Ashraf et al., 2019) and state of “water bankruptcy” (Madani et al., 2016) can limit its agricultural productivity and is a serious threat to the country's food security. Agriculture has a pivotal role in providing food and welfare in Iran. Most explanations include the inherent assumption that a change occurred in the subsistence base. Within three decades, the weight of consumed chemical fertilizers was doubled in pursuit of increased food production (Figure 9). "The nuclear deal, at the end of the day, is not just about nukes — it's about the future of Iran politically; it's about the future of the revolution," Wright says. Due to a severe drought at the end of the past millennium, Iran rose to the position of a fifth‐largest wheat importer in the world in 2001 (Alizadeh & Keshavarz, 2005). Significant amounts of untreated wastewater, mainly originating from agricultural lands, are discharged into surface and ground water resources. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The next study will more closely look into the distribution of crops patterns and discuss the future of Iran’s agriculture in the contexts of freshwater consumption and the monetary value of products. Despite experiencing several severe droughts, some highly water consumptive crops such as cucurbits, special vegetation, and forage had high production values during the dry years (Figure 8d). Approximately 90 per cent of its territory is classed as arid and semi-arid, of which about half is characterised by low- or medium-quality rangeland, wasteland and mountains. The Fresh Fruit & Vegetables (FFV) production is near to 30 million tons per year. Figure 3 shows the locations of stations. Given the heavy reliance of the agricultural sector on water availability, it is important to examine if Iran's agriculture has been impacted by water availability changes in recent decades. Around a third of the total land area of Iran is suited for agriculture. To compare some variables with different units and ranges of variability (e.g., SPI, agricultural production, and agricultural area), feature scaling based on the normalized method was used using the Student's t test (Hogg & Craig, 1995). All data used in this study can be obtained from figures and tables. The increase in the area of irrigated agriculture has compensated for the loss of rain‐fed lands. The rise in consumption, advanced technologies and low water requirements for horticulture are the major drivers behind the growth of the market studied. Other important crops include potatoes, dates, figs, pistachios, walnuts, almonds, cotton, sugarcane, sugar beet, tea and tobacco. Processes, Information The recent initiative is expected to lift Iran’s agricultural mechanization rate above 2hp/ha by 2021. A further threat to domestic food production is that in March 2008 FAO confirmed the discovery of Ug99 wheat stem rust in western Iran, which has the potential to devastate much of the country's wheat crop. This has been mainly attributed to the country's unsustainable economic development plans, inefficient agriculture, and water overconsumption (Madani, 2014; Madani Larijani, 2005). 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